Where Medicine Went Wrong

Author: Bruce J. West
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812568832
Size: 37.92 MB
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Where Medicine Went Wrong explores how the idea of an average value has been misapplied to medical phenomena, distorted understanding and lead to flawed medical decisions. Through new insights into the science of complexity, traditional physiology is replaced with fractal physiology, in which variability is more indicative of health than is an average. The capricious nature of physiological systems is made conceptually manageable by smoothing over fluctuations and thinking in terms of averages. But these variations in such aspects as heart rate, breathing and walking are much more susceptible to the early influence of disease than are averages.It may be useful to quote from the late Stephen Jay Gould's book Full House on the errant nature of averages: ?? our culture encodes a strong bias either to neglect or ignore variation. We tend to focus instead on measures of central tendency, and as a result we make some terrible mistakes, often with considerable practical import.? Dr West has quantified this observation and make it useful for the diagnosis of disease.

Fractal Physiology And Chaos In Medicine

Author: Bruce J West
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814417815
Size: 78.74 MB
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This exceptional book is concerned with the application of fractals and chaos, as well as other concepts from nonlinear dynamics to biomedical phenomena. Herein we seek to communicate the excitement being experienced by scientists upon making application of these concepts within the life sciences. Mathematical concepts are introduced using biomedical data sets and the phenomena being explained take precedence over the mathematics. In this new edition what has withstood the test of time has been updated and modernized; speculations that were not borne out have been expunged and the breakthroughs that have occurred in the intervening years are emphasized. The book provides a comprehensive overview of a nascent theory of medicine, including a new chapter on the theory of complex networks as they pertain to medicine. Contents:IntroductionPhysiology in Fractal DimensionsDynamics in Fractal DimensionsStatistics in Fractal DimensionsApplications of Chaotic AttractorsPhysiologic Networks: The Final Chapter? Readership: Biomedical and physical scientists and students. Keywords:Fractals;Chaos;Physiology;Medicine;Nonlinear Dynamics;Networks;ComplexityReviews: “This book is an excellent introduction to nonlinear dynamics and fractals in medicine.” Zentralbatt MATH

From Brain To Body The Impact Of Nervous System Declines On Muscle Performance In Aging

Author: Brian C. Clark
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889196860
Size: 11.36 MB
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Download PDF Download EPUB The deterioration of skeletal muscle performance (e.g., declines in muscle strength and motor performance) with advancing age has long been anecdotally recognized as Shakespeare pointed out nearly a half millennium ago in his monologue The Seven Ages of Man, and has been of scientific interest for well over a century. Over the past several decades the scientific and medical communities have recognized that reduced skeletal muscle performance is a debilitating and life threatening condition in the elderly. For example, the age-associated loss of muscle strength, as well as impairment in the ability to finely control movement, is highly associated with physical disability and difficulty performing activities of daily living. While the nervous system is widely recognized for its role in controlling skeletal muscle during motor function, its role in determining the performance characteristics of aged skeletal muscle has largely been understudied. Historically, it was believed that these reductions in muscle performance were primarily resultant of age-associated adaptations in skeletal muscle (e.g., muscle atrophy). However, aging is associated with widespread qualitative and quantitative changes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems that are likely to influence numerous aspects of muscle performance, such as muscle strength, fatigue, and motor control, as well as mobility. In this research topic, we sought to examine a broad range of issues surrounding: 1) the age-related changes in nervous system anatomical, physiological, and biochemical changes in the central and/or peripheral nervous systems; 2) the functional role of these nervous system changes in contributing to altered skeletal muscle performance and/or mobility; and 3) physical and pharmacologic interventions that act via the nervous system to enhance muscle performance and/or mobility. Researchers and academicians engaged in aging, neuroscience, and/or applied physiology research focused within the scope of this research topic, were encouraged to contribute an original research article, review article, clinical case study, hypothesis and theory article, method article, opinion article, or technology report to this research topic. Herein, we present a series of outstanding articles within this scope of work, including a last minute addition article from Wiesmeier, Dalin and Maurer that is not mentioned in the editorial, that we hope will help to vertically advance the intersecting fields of aging/geriatrics and neuroscience. Lastly, as the editors, we wish to thank all article contributors and peer reviewers for their efforts in contributing to this Research Topic journal issue/book. Additionally, we would like to thank people everywhere who volunteer their time and body for human subjects research studies, such that are presented herein. It is the wonderful individuals who are willing to participate in experiments that make scientific exploration and health and medical advancements possible.

Perspectives On Organisms

Author: Giuseppe Longo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642359388
Size: 37.71 MB
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This authored monograph introduces a genuinely theoretical approach to biology. Starting point is the investigation of empirical biological scaling including their variability, which is found in the literature, e.g. allometric relationships, fractals, etc. The book then analyzes two different aspects of biological time: first, a supplementary temporal dimension to accommodate proper biological rhythms; secondly, the concepts of protension and retention as a means of local organization of time in living organisms. Moreover, the book investigates the role of symmetry in biology, in view of its ubiquitous importance in physics. In relation with the notion of extended critical transitions, the book proposes that organisms and their evolution can be characterized by continued symmetry changes, which accounts for the irreducibility of their historicity and variability. The authors also introduce the concept of anti-entropy as a measure for the potential of variability, being equally understood as alterations in symmetry. By this, the book provides a mathematical account of Gould's analysis of phenotypic complexity with respect to biological evolution. The target audience primarily comprises researchers interested in new theoretical approaches to biology, from physical, biological or philosophical backgrounds, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students who want to enter this field.

The Wisdom Of The Body

Author: Walter Bradford Cannon
Publisher: Peter Smith Pub Incorporated
ISBN: 9780393002058
Size: 31.97 MB
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Describes the relation of the autonomic system to the self-regulation of psysiological processes. Bibliogs

Physiology Promiscuity And Prophecy At The Millennium

Author: Bruce J. West
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789810238360
Size: 34.32 MB
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This book concerns the development of a theory of complex phenomena, using such concepts as fractals, chaos, and fractional derivatives; but, most important, the idea of an allometric control process is developed. In summary the theory attempts to explain why the distribution in the intensity of wars is the same as the relative frequency of the number of words used in languages and the number of species evolved over time from one or a few remote ancestors. The theory also describes the similarity in the variability of the number of births to teens in Texas to the number of sexual partners in homosexual liaisons. The data in both of the aforementioned categories are shown to have long-term memory, and it is this memory that also gives rise to inverse power laws in such physiological phenomena as the interbeat interval distribution of the human heart, the interstride interval distribution in the human gait, and memory in DNA sequences.

Mind Force

Author: Franco Orsucci
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812771220
Size: 11.26 MB
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Connections between genes and molecules, neurons and hormones, thinking and language, people and organizations create a continuous flow of synchronized interactions. These intermingled interactions form dynamical networks across many scales, from molecular, to biological, to cognitive and social. In a sequence of cycles, the reader is guided in this heterogeneous hypernetwork to discover the fields and landscapes of Mind Force. Mind, brain, body and society emerge from the same stream through the complexity of nature: the energy of Mind Force and human attractions.

Human Walking In Virtual Environments

Author: Frank Steinicke
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781493900114
Size: 68.76 MB
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This book presents a survey of past and recent developments on human walking in virtual environments with an emphasis on human self-motion perception, the multisensory nature of experiences of walking, conceptual design approaches, current technologies, and applications. The use of Virtual Reality and movement simulation systems is becoming increasingly popular and more accessible to a wide variety of research fields and applications. While, in the past, simulation technologies have focused on developing realistic, interactive visual environments, it is becoming increasingly obvious that our everyday interactions are highly multisensory. Therefore, investigators are beginning to understand the critical importance of developing and validating locomotor interfaces that can allow for realistic, natural behaviours. The book aims to present an overview of what is currently understood about human perception and performance when moving in virtual environments and to situate it relative to the broader scientific and engineering literature on human locomotion and locomotion interfaces. The contents include scientific background and recent empirical findings related to biomechanics, self-motion perception, and physical interactions. The book also discusses conceptual approaches to multimodal sensing, display systems, and interaction for walking in real and virtual environments. Finally, it will present current and emerging applications in areas such as gait and posture rehabilitation, gaming, sports, and architectural design.

Variability In Human Performance

Author: Thomas J. Smith
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466579722
Size: 64.86 MB
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Understanding the conditions under which variability in performance may arise, and the processes related to its emergence, gives us insight into the development of techniques for improving the quality of performance. Variability in Human Performance details the scientific and the practical implications of human performance variability by providing a broad perspective on how and why such variability occurs across a number of disciplinary domains. The text takes an approach that rests upon the idea of context, or design, specificity in performance, namely that variability in performance is closely referenced to design factors in the environment in which performance is occurring. An exploration of the link between variability and related processes, the book introduces a comprehensive framework for understanding human performance variability, presented in terms of how human control of behavior is closely tied to design factors in the performance environment. The authors introduce empirical evidence, as well as practical examples and application areas, in support of this framework. The book begins with coverage of neurobiological and biomechanical basis of movement variability, then examines rich and extensive empirical evidence available for context specificity in cognitive performance and learning, as a basis for cognitive performance variability. The book then reviews the evidence for context specificity in: Student learning Displaced feedback conditions Human error behavior Affective performance Social and team performance The authors also explore work performance as influenced by complex sociotechnical systems and as a basis for performance variability, applying control systems concepts to an interpretation of the nature and basis of performance variability in all of these domains. They conclude by taking an evolutionary perspective on the origins and behavioral significance of human performance variability. The book then provides strategies on how individuals, groups, and organizations can significantly reduce variability in human performance that often leads to systems failures.