Water And Development

Author: The World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821383940
Size: 27.50 MB
Format: PDF
View: 2035
Development patterns, increasing population pressure, and the demand for better livelihoods in many parts of the globe all contribute to a steadily deepening global water crisis. Development redirects, consumes, and pollutes water. It also causes changes in the state of natural water reservoirs, directly by draining aquifers and indirectly by melting glaciers and the polar ice caps. Maintaining a sustainable relationship between water and development requires that current needs be balanced against the needs of future generations. The development community has transformed and broadened its approach to water since the 1980s. As stresses on the quality and availability of water have increased, donors have begun to move toward more comprehensive approaches that seek to integrate water into development in other sectors. This evaluation examines the full scope of the World Bank s lending and grant support for water activities. More than 30 background papers prepared for the evaluation have analyzed Bank lending by thematic area and by activity type. IDA and IBRD (the Bank) have supported countries in many water-related sectors. The evaluation, by definition, is retrospective, but it identifies changes that will be necessary going forward, including those related to strengthening institutions and increasing financial sustainability. Lessons and results from nearly 2,000 loans and credits, and work with 142 countries are identified.

Water Studies

Author: C. A. Brebbia
Publisher: WIT Press
ISBN: 1784663239
Size: 17.66 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 5861
Comprising specially selected papers this book presents trans-disciplinary research on issues related to the nature of water, and its use and exploitation by society. The valuable research contained in this book demonstrates the need to bridge the gap between physical, biological, environmental and health sciences. Water is essential for sustaining life on our planet, nevertheless its unequal distribution is a source of permanent conflict. It is predicted that population growth and irregular rainfall, due to climate change, may lead to more restricted access to water in certain regions of the world. This problem is made even more severe by human actions that can cause degradation to nature and the environment. The availability of clean and inexpensive water can no longer be taken for granted as the need for water continues to increase due a growing global population. Heavy water consumers such as agriculture and industry often contribute to its contamination. Water distribution networks in urban areas and soiled water collection systems, present serious problems as well as the need to maintain ageing infrastructures. Possible technologically solutions, such as desalination or pumping systems are energy demanding but, as costs rise, the techniques currently developed may need to be re-assessed.

Evaluating Environment In International Development

Author: Juha Uitto
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317803248
Size: 51.48 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 5691
More than twenty years after the Earth Summit was held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, both national and international actors in governmental and nongovernmental fields are still searching for insights into how sustainable development can be advanced and environmental concerns incorporated into the development agenda more effectively. Moreover, climate change has emerged as a preeminent challenge to both the environment and to development. Evaluating Environment in International Development provides international perspectives and in-depth knowledge of evaluating development and the environment and applies evaluation knowledge to climate change mitigation and adaptation. The book focuses on the approaches and experiences of leading international organizations, not-for-profits, and multilateral and bilateral aid agencies to illustrate how systematic evaluation is an essential tool for providing evidence for decision-makers. It provides novel and in-depth perspectives on evaluating environment and sustainability issues in developing countries. Moving beyond projects and programmes, it considers aspects such as evaluating normative work on the environment and evaluating environmental consequences of economic and social development efforts. This original collection should be of interest to scholars of environment studies, development studies, international relations, sustainable development and evaluation, as well as practitioners in international organizations and development and environmental NGOs.

Impact Evaluation In Practice Second Edition

Author: Paul J. Gertler
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464807809
Size: 49.33 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
View: 3008
The second edition of the Impact Evaluation in Practice handbook is a comprehensive and accessible introduction to impact evaluation for policy makers and development practitioners. First published in 2011, it has been used widely across the development and academic communities. The book incorporates real-world examples to present practical guidelines for designing and implementing impact evaluations. Readers will gain an understanding of impact evaluations and the best ways to use them to design evidence-based policies and programs. The updated version covers the newest techniques for evaluating programs and includes state-of-the-art implementation advice, as well as an expanded set of examples and case studies that draw on recent development challenges. It also includes new material on research ethics and partnerships to conduct impact evaluation. The handbook is divided into four sections: Part One discusses what to evaluate and why; Part Two presents the main impact evaluation methods; Part Three addresses how to manage impact evaluations; Part Four reviews impact evaluation sampling and data collection. Case studies illustrate different applications of impact evaluations. The book links to complementary instructional material available online, including an applied case as well as questions and answers. The updated second edition will be a valuable resource for the international development community, universities, and policy makers looking to build better evidence around what works in development.

Development Without Aid

Author: David A. Phillips
Publisher: Anthem Press
ISBN: 0857283014
Size: 71.73 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 4454
“Development Without Aid” opens up perspectives about foreign aid to the world’s poorest countries. Growing up in Malawi the author developed a sense of the limitations of foreign assistance and from this evolves a critique of foreign aid as an alien resource unable to provide the dynamism that could propel the poorest countries out of poverty. The book aims to help move the discussion beyond foreign aid. It examines the rapid growth of the world’s diasporas as a quasi-indigenous resource of increasing strength in terms of both financial and human capital, and considers how far such a resource might supersede aid. It uses extensive research findings to explore the possibilities for a resumption of sovereignty by poor states, especially in Africa, over their own development with the assistance of the world’s diasporas.

Development And Human Rights

Author: Joel E. Oestreich
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190637366
Size: 15.99 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
View: 4250
In 2003, the United Nations adopted a common rights-based approach to development in their efforts to promote an international standard of human rights throughout the world. The approach emphasizes economic, social, and cultural rights, but plays down the role of civil and political rights in development. Intergovernmental and non-governmental agencies operate only at the invitation and sufferance of their hosts, and states retain full sovereignty and control over their territory; and the direct promotion of civil and political rights by foreign organizations has seemed beyond the ability of multilateral development agencies. But as Development and Human Rights shows, UN agencies have begun to take on a remarkable set of development priorities that, while carefully circumscribed and defined, constitute greater involvement in a state's internal affairs than anyone would have considered in the past. In this book, Joel E. Oestreich presents the first full-length study of how international agencies evaluate the rights situation in a single country, and the first study to look at both the good and the bad in a rights-based approach. It looks particularly at the human rights challenges faced in India, considering the work of five UN agencies: UNICEF, the UN Development Programme, the World Bank, the UN Fund for Population Activities, and UN Women. Over the course of the book, Oestreich summarizes how the UN navigates this difficult political terrain, and how effectively these policies are being implemented. Development and Human Rights ultimately considers how rights-based approaches fit in the traditional discourse on human rights, and the ability of these agencies to initiate meaningful change on state behavior in the rights arena.

India The Challenges Of Development

Author: Gianni Zanini
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821349687
Size: 68.32 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 6230
This Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) reviews the development effectiveness of World Bank assistance to India during the 1990s. It builds on evaluations of sector assistance programs, projects, and nonlending services to make these assessments. This report uses the standard evaluation categories of outcome, sustainability, and institutional development.

Review Procedures For Water Resources Project Planning

Author: Water Science and Technology Board
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 030908508X
Size: 24.11 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 975
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, through its civil works program, can take pride in its contributions throughout our nation's history to the development of waterways infrastructure, navigation, flood damage reduction, water resources development and protection, and environmental restoration. Many projects that have been pioneering in their concept and bold in their execution were made possible by the creativity and dedication of outstanding scientists, engineers, and builders. The Corps has always had review processes for evaluation of its planning studies and projects, with the focus often being largely on the technical aspects. In recent years, however, increased consideration of such factors as environmental impacts, economic evaluations, political pressures, and new paradigms about flood control and management has engendered increased criticism and concern that some of the Corps' studies may have led to conclusions, recommendations, and project decisions that are not adequately supported by the assumptions and analyses that were used. The focus of the report is on review of Corps of Engineers studies, with careful attention given to the need for independent, external reviews by panels of well-qualified and impartial experts for large, complex, and sensitive projects.