Virus As Populations

Author: Esteban Domingo
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128009942
Size: 17.19 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
View: 6059
Download
Virus as Populations: Composition, Complexity, Dynamics, and Biological Implications explains fundamental concepts that arise from regarding viruses as complex populations when replicating in infected hosts. Fundamental phenomena in virus behavior, such as adaptation to changing environments, capacity to produce disease, probability to be transmitted or response to treatment, depend on virus population numbers and in the variations of such population numbers. Concepts such as quasispecies dynamics, mutations rates, viral fitness, the effect of bottleneck events, population numbers in virus transmission and disease emergence, new antiviral strategies such as lethal mutagenesis, and extensions of population heterogeneity to nonviral systems are included. These main concepts of the book are framed in recent observations on general virus diversity derived from metagenomic studies, and current views on the origin of viruses and the role of viruses in the evolution of the biosphere. Features current views on the key steps in the origin of life and origins of viruses Includes examples relating ancestral features of viruses with their current adaptive capacity Explains complex phenomena in an organized and coherent fashion that is easy to comprehend and enjoyable to read Considers quasispecies as a framework to understand virus adaptability and disease processes

Origin And Evolution Of Viruses

Author: Esteban Domingo
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080564968
Size: 36.52 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
View: 1925
Download
New viral diseases are emerging continuously. Viruses adapt to new environments at astounding rates. Genetic variability of viruses jeopardizes vaccine efficacy. For many viruses mutants resistant to antiviral agents or host immune responses arise readily, for example, with HIV and influenza. These variations are all of utmost importance for human and animal health as they have prevented us from controlling these epidemic pathogens. This book focuses on the mechanisms that viruses use to evolve, survive and cause disease in their hosts. Covering human, animal, plant and bacterial viruses, it provides both the basic foundations for the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and specific examples of emerging diseases. * NEW - methods to establish relationships among viruses and the mechanisms that affect virus evolution * UNIQUE - combines theoretical concepts in evolution with detailed analyses of the evolution of important virus groups * SPECIFIC - Bacterial, plant, animal and human viruses are compared regarding their interation with their hosts

Foot And Mouth Disease Virus

Author: Francisco Sobrino
Publisher: Caister Academic Press
ISBN: 1910190527
Size: 53.95 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 7011
Download
Fifteen years after the devastating 2001 European foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak, the virus causing that shocking episode continues to pose a major threat to animal health worldwide. The development of more effective, sustainable and socially acceptable disease control measures remains a key task. This volume provides essential scientific background on FMD and its etiological agent, FMD virus, as well as comprehensive, interdisciplinary and up-to-date information on basic research findings and applied developments contributing to FMD control. The eighteen chapters have been written by leading FMD researchers. Topics include genome organization, translation and replication, virus-coded proteinases, structure of virus particles, cell receptors and host range, the RNA polymerase, quasispecies dynamics and virus evolution, innate and acquired immune responses, and the clinical signs of FMD and its natural habitats. Further chapters deal with various aspects of disease control such as diagnosis, current and new vaccines, antivirals and models of epidemiology. The role of international organizations in FMD control and the impact of FMDV as a re-emergent virus are also addressed. The book is required reading for everyone involved in FMD and is an important acquisition for all microbiology libraries.

Quasispecies Concept And Implications For Virology

Author: Esteban Domingo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540263977
Size: 55.93 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 3212
Download
Continuous genetic variation and selection of virus subpopulations in the course of RNA virus replications are intimately related to viral disease mechanisms. The central topics of this volume are the origins of the quasispecies concept, and the implications of quasispecies dynamics for viral populations.

Progress In Drug Research

Author: Hao Wu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783764369873
Size: 34.35 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 389
Download
Progress in Drug Research is a prestigious book series which provides extensive expert-written reviews on a wide spectrum of highly topical areas in current pharmaceutical and pharmacological research. It serves as an important source of information for researchers concerned with drug research and all those who need to keep abreast of the many recent developments in the quest for new and better medicines.

Plant Biotechnology And Agriculture

Author: Arie Altman
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123814669
Size: 19.98 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 1833
Download
As the oldest and largest human intervention in nature, the science of agriculture is one of the most intensely studied practices. From manipulation of plant gene structure to the use of plants for bioenergy, biotechnology interventions in plant and agricultural science have been rapidly developing over the past ten years with immense forward leaps on an annual basis. This book begins by laying the foundations for plant biotechnology by outlining the biological aspects including gene structure and expression, and the basic procedures in plant biotechnology of genomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. It then focuses on a discussion of the impacts of biotechnology on plant breeding technologies and germplasm sustainability. The role of biotechnology in the improvement of agricultural traits, production of industrial products and pharmaceuticals as well as biomaterials and biomass provide a historical perspective and a look to the future. Sections addressing intellectual property rights and sociological and food safety issues round out the holistic discussion of this important topic. Includes specific emphasis on the inter-relationships between basic plant biotechnologies and applied agricultural applications, and the way they contribute to each other Provides an updated review of the major plant biotechnology procedures and techniques, their impact on novel agricultural development and crop plant improvement Takes a broad view of the topic with discussions of practices in many countries

Aging In Sub Saharan Africa

Author: Panel on Policy Research and Data Needs to Meet the Challenge of Aging in Africa
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309102812
Size: 38.19 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
View: 7521
Download
In sub-Saharan Africa, older people make up a relatively small fraction of the total population and are supported primarily by family and other kinship networks. They have traditionally been viewed as repositories of information and wisdom, and are critical pillars of the community but as the HIV/AIDS pandemic destroys family systems, the elderly increasingly have to deal with the loss of their own support while absorbing the additional responsibilities of caring for their orphaned grandchildren. Aging in Sub-Saharan Africa explores ways to promote U.S. research interests and to augment the sub-Saharan governments' capacity to address the many challenges posed by population aging. Five major themes are explored in the book such as the need for a basic definition of "older person," the need for national governments to invest more in basic research and the coordination of data collection across countries, and the need for improved dialogue between local researchers and policy makers. This book makes three major recommendations: 1) the development of a research agenda 2) enhancing research opportunity and implementation and 3) the translation of research findings.

Bark Beetles

Author: Fernando E. Vega
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124171737
Size: 15.78 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 5662
Download
Bark Beetles: Biology and Ecology of Native and Invasive Species provides a thorough discussion of these economically important pests of coniferous and broadleaf trees and their importance in agriculture. It is the first book in the market solely dedicated to this important group of insects, and contains 15 chapters on natural history and ecology, morphology, taxonomy and phylogenetics, evolution and diversity, population dynamics, resistance, symbiotic associations, natural enemies, climate change, management strategies, economics, and politics, with some chapters exclusively devoted to some of the most economically important bark beetle genera, including Dendroctonus, Ips, Tomicus, Hypothenemus, and Scolytus. This text is ideal for entomology and forestry courses, and is aimed at scientists, faculty members, forest managers, practitioners of biological control of insect pests, mycologists interested in bark beetle-fungal associations, and students in the disciplines of entomology, ecology, and forestry. Provides the only synthesis of the literature on bark beetles Features chapters exclusively devoted to some of the most economically important bark beetle genera, such as Dendroctonus, Ips, Tomicus, Hypothenemus, and Scolytus Includes copious color illustrations and photographs that further enhance the content

The Picornaviruses

Author: Ellie Ehrenfeld
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Press
ISBN: 1555816037
Size: 64.69 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 543
Download
A springboard for developing new approaches to understanding, preventing, and treating picornaviral diseases. • Examines the most current breakthroughs as well as the challenges that lie ahead in picornavirus research; encapsulates current knowledge of the molecular biology, evolution, and pathogenesis of this large family of viruses; and, examines the diseases that these viruses cause and the latest vaccines and antiviral drugs to prevent and control those diseases. • Explores the structural and mechanistic bases of picornavirus replication, highlighting new insights about the host cell interactions needed for virus growth; and, illustrates how the regular occurrence of mutations, typical of viruses with RNA as genetic material, generates the quasispecies dynamics that underlie viral fitness. • Focuses on picornaviruses that cause disease, examining pathogenicity and innate and acquired immune responses against infection as well as the latest vaccine and antiviral drug strategies.