Untranslated Gene Regions And Other Non Coding Elements

Author: Lucy W. Barrett
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3034806795
Size: 77.63 MB
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There is now compelling evidence that the complexity of higher organisms correlates with the relative amount of non-coding RNA rather than the number of protein-coding genes. Previously dismissed as “junk DNA”, it is the non-coding regions of the genome that are responsible for regulation, facilitating complex temporal and spatial gene expression through the combinatorial effect of numerous mechanisms and interactions working together to fine-tune gene expression. The major regions involved in regulation of a particular gene are the 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions and introns. In addition, pervasive transcription of complex genomes produces a variety of non-coding transcripts that interact with these regions and contribute to regulation. This book discusses recent insights into the regulatory roles of the untranslated gene regions and non-coding RNAs in the control of complex gene expression, as well as the implications of this in terms of organism complexity and evolution.​

Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidases

Author: Immacolata Castellano
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3034806825
Size: 17.26 MB
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Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidases (γ-GTs) are members of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily, enzymes that cleave the γ-glutamyl amide bond of glutathione to liberate cysteinylglycine. The released γ-glutamyl group can be transferred to water (hydrolysis) or to amino acids or short peptides (transpeptidation). γ-GT plays a key role in the gamma glutamyl cycle by regulating the cellular levels of the antioxidant glutathione, hence it is a critical enzyme in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis.γ-GT is upregulated during inflammation and in several human tumors, and it is involved in many physiological disorders related to oxidative stress, such as Parkinson’s disease and diabetes. Furthermore, this enzyme is used as a marker of liver disease and cancer. This book covers current knowledge about the structure-function relationship of γ-GTs and gives information about applications of γ-GTs in different fields ranging from clinical biochemistry to biotechnology and biomedicine.​

Molecular Biology And Pathogenesis Of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus

Author: Muhammad Munir
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642314511
Size: 58.91 MB
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Peste de Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants that can significantly affect economies. The authors are experts in the field and provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review covering all aspects of the disease. The book is divided into seven chapters highlighting genome organization, virus replication and the determinants of virulence, pathophysiology and clinical disease, immunology and immunopathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnostic assays and vaccines, and the challenges concerning global eradication. It is an invaluable reference work, presenting the latest information for virologists, microbiologists, immunologists, veterinarians, and scientists working in PPR research.

Ascorbic Acid In Plants

Author: Yuyang Zhang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461441277
Size: 38.25 MB
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Ascorbate acid (AsA) is an important antioxidant in plants, playing important roles in various physiological processes. Humans have lost the ability to synthesize AsA because of the lack of L-gulono-1,4-lactone oxidoreductase, and thus have to absorb ascorbate from diet including fresh fruits and vegetables, as they are the major sources of ascorbate. Several pathways for AsA biosynthesis and metabolism have been identified in plants since 1998. More attention has been paid to improving ascorbate content in plants especially in fruits and vegetables. Significant progresses have been made on key enzymes and genes involved in the AsA biosynthesis and metabolism. Recently, more interests have arised in the regulation of AsA biosynthesis, as it is constantly regulated by the plant development and the environmental factors, e.g. light. Ascorbic acid is also frequently reported to affect plant growth and development e.g. flowering time and fruit ripening. The scope of the book is to cover the biological role, biosynthesis and metabolism, regulation, and metabolic modification of ascorbate in plants.

Evolution That Anyone Can Understand

Author: Bernard Marcus
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441961266
Size: 25.52 MB
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The function of scientific research is promoting the understanding of the world around us. In theory, anyway, the more we learn, the more potential we have of making our lives better. Thus, we have seen research in electronics provide us with computers, research in chemistry provide us with all manner of synthetics, and research in agriculture provide us with more food. Periodically, scientific research uncovers something that makes some of us uncomfortable. The discovery of the link between smoking and lung cancer and heart disease was not received well by the tobacco industry, and the link between global climate change and fossil fuel use has not been well received by the petroleum industry, to cite just two examples. Usually the response of those whose world has been disrupted by science is denial, often followed by attack on or ridicule of the science that has challenged them. In the long term, however, science usually turns out to be correct.

Epigenetic Approaches To Allergy Research

Author: Marién Pascual
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461463661
Size: 17.86 MB
Format: PDF
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In recent years, epigenetic approaches to existing scientific problems have offered many new and exciting perspectives. This book focuses on epigenetic approaches to study asthma and allergy research. The authors briefly review cellular factors, immune signaling, and inflammatory pathways in allergy and asthma, as well as genetic influences in the pathogenesis of atopic disorders. Diseases that have been clearly linked to an epigenetic dysregulation will be discussed, as well as the role of epigenetics in the origin of complex diseases. The authors will examine the impact of environment factors in the predisposition to atopic disorders, and they will also describe the major unanswered questions and future perspectives of an exciting new field that studies allergic diseases from the epigenetic point of view.

Threats To Mangrove Forests

Author: Christopher Makowski
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319730169
Size: 51.11 MB
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This book focuses on the worldwide threats to mangrove forests and the management solutions currently being used to counteract those hazards. Designed for the professional or specialist in marine science, coastal zone management, biology, and related disciplines, this work will appeal to those not only working to protect mangrove forests, but also the surrounding coastal areas of all types. Examples are drawn from many different geographic areas, including North and South America, India, and Southeast Asia. Subject areas covered include both human-induced and natural impacts to mangroves, intended or otherwise, as well as the efforts being made by coastal researchers to promote restoration of these coastal fringing forests.

Bio Pigmentation And Biotechnological Implementations

Author: Om V. Singh
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119166187
Size: 14.34 MB
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Recent technological advances have provided unique opportunities for the exploration of alternatives to the industrial use of chemically produced synthetic colors. The most promising developments in this area have been in bio-pigmentation derived from microorganisms. This groundbreaking book reviews the current state of the science of bio-pigmentation, providing important insights into the molecular mechanisms of microbial biosynthesis of industrial pigments. Featuring contributions by leading researchers from both industry and academe, it explores the latest advances in the use of bio-pigments as safe, sustainable alternatives to chemically synthesized pigments, and provides extensive coverage the most promising sources of bio-pigments within the food, feed, and pharmaceutical industries. • Proposes microbial uniqueness of coloration in variety of food, feed and pharmaceuticals • Covers the basic science behind bio-pigmentation as well as the latest advances in the field • Describes detection strategies for screening and identifying color producing microorganisms under varying environmental conditions • Provides an exhaustive review of the literature on color producing extremophiles and offers fascinating insights into color production as a stress response in extremophiles • Explores microbial molecular mechanisms of color production, with special coverage of color production as secondary metabolites under environmental stress Bio-pigmentation and Biotechnological Implementations is required reading for professionals and post-doctoral students of microbiology, applied microbiology, food microbiology, food science, and food biochemistry. It is a valuable working resource for scientists working in color-dependent food, feed, and pharmaceuticals.

Reactive Oxygen Species And Oxidative Damage In Plants Under Stress

Author: Dharmendra K. Gupta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319204211
Size: 58.31 MB
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This book provides detailed and comprehensive information on oxidative damage caused by stresses in plants with especial reference to the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In plants, as in all aerobic organisms, ROS are common by-products formed by the inevitable leakage of electrons onto O2 from the electron transport activities located in chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes and in plasma membranes or as a consequence of various metabolic pathways confined in different cellular loci. Environmental stresses such as heat, cold, drought, salinity, heavy-metal toxicity, ozone and ultraviolet radiation as well as pathogens/contagion attack lead to enhanced generation of ROS in plants due to disruption of cellular homeostasis. ROS play a dual role in plants; at low concentrations they act as signaling molecules that facilitate several responses in plant cells, including those promoted by biotic and abiotic agents. In divergence, at high levels they cause damage to cellular constituents triggering oxidative stress. In either case, small antioxidant molecules and enzymes modulate the action of these ambivalent species.

Data Analysis In Molecular Biology And Evolution

Author: Xuhua Xia
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0792375009
Size: 69.40 MB
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Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution introduces biologists to DAMBE, a proprietary, user-friendly computer program for molecular data analysis. The unique combination of this book and software will allow biologists not only to understand the rationale behind a variety of computational tools in molecular biology and evolution, but also to gain instant access to these tools for use in their laboratories. Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution serves as an excellent resource for advanced level undergraduates or graduates as well as for professionals working in the field.