Untranslated Gene Regions And Other Non Coding Elements

Author: Lucy W. Barrett
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3034806795
Size: 26.27 MB
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There is now compelling evidence that the complexity of higher organisms correlates with the relative amount of non-coding RNA rather than the number of protein-coding genes. Previously dismissed as “junk DNA”, it is the non-coding regions of the genome that are responsible for regulation, facilitating complex temporal and spatial gene expression through the combinatorial effect of numerous mechanisms and interactions working together to fine-tune gene expression. The major regions involved in regulation of a particular gene are the 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions and introns. In addition, pervasive transcription of complex genomes produces a variety of non-coding transcripts that interact with these regions and contribute to regulation. This book discusses recent insights into the regulatory roles of the untranslated gene regions and non-coding RNAs in the control of complex gene expression, as well as the implications of this in terms of organism complexity and evolution.​

Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidases

Author: Immacolata Castellano
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3034806825
Size: 73.90 MB
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Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidases (γ-GTs) are members of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily, enzymes that cleave the γ-glutamyl amide bond of glutathione to liberate cysteinylglycine. The released γ-glutamyl group can be transferred to water (hydrolysis) or to amino acids or short peptides (transpeptidation). γ-GT plays a key role in the gamma glutamyl cycle by regulating the cellular levels of the antioxidant glutathione, hence it is a critical enzyme in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis.γ-GT is upregulated during inflammation and in several human tumors, and it is involved in many physiological disorders related to oxidative stress, such as Parkinson’s disease and diabetes. Furthermore, this enzyme is used as a marker of liver disease and cancer. This book covers current knowledge about the structure-function relationship of γ-GTs and gives information about applications of γ-GTs in different fields ranging from clinical biochemistry to biotechnology and biomedicine.​

Molecular Biology And Pathogenesis Of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus

Author: Muhammad Munir
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642314511
Size: 17.69 MB
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Peste de Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants that can significantly affect economies. The authors are experts in the field and provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review covering all aspects of the disease. The book is divided into seven chapters highlighting genome organization, virus replication and the determinants of virulence, pathophysiology and clinical disease, immunology and immunopathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnostic assays and vaccines, and the challenges concerning global eradication. It is an invaluable reference work, presenting the latest information for virologists, microbiologists, immunologists, veterinarians, and scientists working in PPR research.

Evolution That Anyone Can Understand

Author: Bernard Marcus
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441961266
Size: 72.71 MB
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The function of scientific research is promoting the understanding of the world around us. In theory, anyway, the more we learn, the more potential we have of making our lives better. Thus, we have seen research in electronics provide us with computers, research in chemistry provide us with all manner of synthetics, and research in agriculture provide us with more food. Periodically, scientific research uncovers something that makes some of us uncomfortable. The discovery of the link between smoking and lung cancer and heart disease was not received well by the tobacco industry, and the link between global climate change and fossil fuel use has not been well received by the petroleum industry, to cite just two examples. Usually the response of those whose world has been disrupted by science is denial, often followed by attack on or ridicule of the science that has challenged them. In the long term, however, science usually turns out to be correct.

Toward Sustainable Relations Between Agriculture And The City

Author: Christophe-Toussaint Soulard
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319710370
Size: 76.82 MB
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This book gives an overview of frameworks, methods, and case studies useful for the analysis of the relations between agriculture and the city, in Europe and the Mediterranean. Its originality lies in the analysis of urban food systems sustainability from an actors’ perspective. All the chapters consider the key role of actors in the definition of innovations and pathways, which enhance sustainability, seen as an ongoing process. Part 1 presents systemic approaches of agricultural-urban interactions at the city-region scale in France, Egypt, Italy and Morocco. Part 2 deals with methods and tools for urban planning and local development, utilized to design and assess sustainable food systems. The Part 3 inventories the recent changes in urban agriculture and the new forms of governance which are emerging in European cities (Athens, Berlin, Lisbon, Montpellier, Paris and Zurich). These results are useful for students, academics and activists involved in local policies and projects.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells In Brain Diseases

Author: Vivi M. Heine
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400728165
Size: 21.11 MB
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Brain diseases can have a large impact on patients and society, and treatment is often not available. A new approach in which somatic cells are reprogrammed into induced pluripotent cells (iPS cells) is a significant breakthrough for regenerative medicine. This promises patient-specific tissue for replacement therapies, as well as disease-specific cells for developmental modeling and drug treatment screening. However, this method faces issues of low reprogramming efficiency, and poorly defined criteria for determining the conversion of one cell type to another. Cells contain epigenetic “memories” of what they were that can affect reprogramming. This book discusses the various methods to reprogram cells, the control and determination of cell identity, the epigenetic models that have emerged and the application of iPS cell therapy for brain diseases, in particular Parkinson’s disease and Vanishing White Matter (VWM).​

Epigenetic Approaches To Allergy Research

Author: Marién Pascual
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461463661
Size: 13.49 MB
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In recent years, epigenetic approaches to existing scientific problems have offered many new and exciting perspectives. This book focuses on epigenetic approaches to study asthma and allergy research. The authors briefly review cellular factors, immune signaling, and inflammatory pathways in allergy and asthma, as well as genetic influences in the pathogenesis of atopic disorders. Diseases that have been clearly linked to an epigenetic dysregulation will be discussed, as well as the role of epigenetics in the origin of complex diseases. The authors will examine the impact of environment factors in the predisposition to atopic disorders, and they will also describe the major unanswered questions and future perspectives of an exciting new field that studies allergic diseases from the epigenetic point of view.

The Magic Ladder To Success

Author: Napoleon Hill
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 048647142X
Size: 28.30 MB
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A renowned self-help guru distills the 17 factors that constitute his famous Law of Success philosophy. These key principles define the ethics and actions that empower individuals to assume leadership.

Reactive Oxygen Species And Oxidative Damage In Plants Under Stress

Author: Dharmendra K. Gupta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319204211
Size: 52.82 MB
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This book provides detailed and comprehensive information on oxidative damage caused by stresses in plants with especial reference to the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In plants, as in all aerobic organisms, ROS are common by-products formed by the inevitable leakage of electrons onto O2 from the electron transport activities located in chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes and in plasma membranes or as a consequence of various metabolic pathways confined in different cellular loci. Environmental stresses such as heat, cold, drought, salinity, heavy-metal toxicity, ozone and ultraviolet radiation as well as pathogens/contagion attack lead to enhanced generation of ROS in plants due to disruption of cellular homeostasis. ROS play a dual role in plants; at low concentrations they act as signaling molecules that facilitate several responses in plant cells, including those promoted by biotic and abiotic agents. In divergence, at high levels they cause damage to cellular constituents triggering oxidative stress. In either case, small antioxidant molecules and enzymes modulate the action of these ambivalent species.

Challenges And Opportunities For Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

Author: Larry J. Anderson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642389198
Size: 35.83 MB
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Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been a high priority for vaccine development for over 50 years now, still no vaccine is available and none has yet demonstrated sufficient promise to move to licensure. The success of RSV immune prophylaxis and the availability of ever more powerful tools to study the immune response and pathogenesis of disease, combined with the ability to construct a wide variety of vaccines using different vaccine platforms, give us grounds to believe that an RSV vaccine is within reach. This book brings together in one source what is currently known about the virus: its clinical and epidemiologic features; the host response and pathogenesis of the disease; vaccines, vaccine platforms, and treatment; and animal and tissue culture models of RSV infection. It is designed to organize the critical information relevant to RSV vaccine development, facilitate the assimilation of data, and speed progress toward producing a safe and effective vaccine.