Unclear Physics

Author: Malfrid Braut-Hegghammer
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 1501706454
Size: 11.69 MB
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Many authoritarian leaders want nuclear weapons, but few manage to acquire them. Autocrats seeking nuclear weapons fail in different ways and to varying degrees—Iraq almost managed it; Libya did not come close. In Unclear Physics, Malfrid Braut-Hegghammer compares the two failed nuclear weapons programs, showing that state capacity played a crucial role in the trajectory and outcomes of both projects. Braut-Hegghammer draws on a rich set of new primary sources, collected during years of research in archives, fieldwork across the Middle East, and interviews with scientists and decision makers from both states. She gained access to documents and individuals that no other researcher has been able to consult. Her book tells the story of the Iraqi and Libyan programs from their origins in the late 1950s and 1960s until their dismantling. This book reveals contemporary perspectives from scientists and regime officials on the opportunities and challenges facing each project. Many of the findings challenge the conventional wisdom about clandestine weapons programs in closed authoritarian states and their prospects of success or failure. Braut-Hegghammer suggests that scholars and analysts ought to pay closer attention to how state capacity affects nuclear weapons programs in other authoritarian regimes, both in terms of questioning the actual control these leaders have over their nuclear weapons programs and the capability of their scientists to solve complex technical challenges.

Eating Grass

Author: Feroz Khan
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804784809
Size: 19.63 MB
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The history of Pakistan's nuclear program is the history of Pakistan. Fascinated with the new nuclear science, the young nation's leaders launched a nuclear energy program in 1956 and consciously interwove nuclear developments into the broader narrative of Pakistani nationalism. Then, impelled first by the 1965 and 1971 India-Pakistan Wars, and more urgently by India's first nuclear weapon test in 1974, Pakistani senior officials tapped into the country's pool of young nuclear scientists and engineers and molded them into a motivated cadre committed to building the 'ultimate weapon.' The tenacity of this group and the central place of its mission in Pakistan's national identity allowed the program to outlast the perennial political crises of the next 20 years, culminating in the test of a nuclear device in 1998. Written by a 30-year professional in the Pakistani Army who played a senior role formulating and advocating Pakistan's security policy on nuclear and conventional arms control, this book tells the compelling story of how and why Pakistan's government, scientists, and military, persevered in the face of a wide array of obstacles to acquire nuclear weapons. It lays out the conditions that sparked the shift from a peaceful quest to acquire nuclear energy into a full-fledged weapons program, details how the nuclear program was organized, reveals the role played by outside powers in nuclear decisions, and explains how Pakistani scientists overcome the many technical hurdles they encountered. Thanks to General Khan's unique insider perspective, it unveils and unravels the fascinating and turbulent interplay of personalities and organizations that took place and reveals how international opposition to the program only made it an even more significant issue of national resolve. Listen to a podcast of a related presentation by Feroz Khan at the Stanford Center for International Security and Cooperation.

Us Foreign Policy In A Challenging World

Author: Marco Clementi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319541188
Size: 45.93 MB
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This book examines how the US is dealing with the challenge of reconciling its global interests with regional dynamics and how it is able to produce and sustain order at the system level and within regional subsystems. The book comprises four parts, the first of which addresses global issues such as nonproliferation, trade, and freedom of the seas. US policies in these areas are carefully analyzed, considering whether and how they have been differently implemented at the regional level. The remaining parts of the book focus on the US posture toward specific regions: Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia. The policies adopted by the US to confront the most relevant challenges in each region are identified, and the ways in which policies in a specific region influence or are influenced by challenges in another region are explored. The book is a rich source of knowledge on the nature of the balance that the US has pursued between global and regional interests. It will be of much interest to scholars, to practitioners, to postgraduate/PhD students of international relations theory and American foreign policy, and to all with an interest in the ability of the US to produce international order.

Stopping The Bomb

Author: Nicholas L. Miller
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 1501717812
Size: 42.76 MB
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"Examines the history and effectiveness of US efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons"--

Sharpening The Arsenal India S Evolving Nuclear Deterrence Policy

Author: Gurmeet Kanwal
Publisher: HarperCollins
ISBN: 935277325X
Size: 28.22 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Speaking in Delhi in November 2016, Manohar Parrikar, India's then Defence Minister, said there should be an element of unpredictability in the country's military strategy. He wondered whether India's nuclear doctrine should be constrained by a 'no-first-use' posture. The essence of the defence minister's introspection was that ambiguity enhances deterrence. This view has been expressed by several nuclear strategists. Nuclear doctrines are not written in stone and are never absolutely rigid. They are not binding international treaties that must be adhered to in letter and spirit. Fifteen years have passed since India's nuclear doctrine was approved by the Cabinet Committee on Security in January 2003. A review of the nuclear doctrine is long overdue. Credible minimum deterrence and the posture of no-first-use have stood the test of time. But is there no conceivable operational contingency that justifies a first strike? Do we need a new nuclear policy for our new geopolitical reality? This book delves into the debate and charts out a way ahead.

The Art Of Sanctions

Author: Richard Nephew
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231542550
Size: 36.50 MB
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Economic sanctions are intended to be a nonmilitary means used by states to force their prerogatives on other states, entities, and individuals. Yet while sanctions have been increasingly used as a foreign policy tool, they are ineffective if executed without a clear strategy that is responsive to the nature and changing behavior of the target. In The Art of Sanctions, Richard Nephew offers a much-needed practical framework that focuses not just on the design of sanctions but, crucially, on how to decide when sanctions have achieved maximum effectiveness and how to improve them along the way. Nephew—a lead participant in the design and implementation of sanctions on Iran—develops guidelines for interpreting targets' responses to sanctions based on two critical factors: pain and resolve. The efficacy of sanctions lies in the application of pain against a target, but targets may have significant resolve to resist, tolerate, or overcome this pain. Understanding the interplay of pain and resolve is central to using sanctions successfully and humanely. With attention to these two key variables, and to how they change over the course of the sanctions regime, policy makers can pinpoint when diplomatic intervention is likely to succeed or when escalation is necessary. Focusing on lessons from sanctions on both Iran and Iraq, Nephew provides policy makers with practical guidance on how to calibrate pain and measure resolve in the service of strong and successful sanctions regimes.

The Worst Kept Secret

Author: Avner Cohen
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231510264
Size: 28.81 MB
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Israel has made a unique contribution to the nuclear age& mdash;it has created (with the tacit support of the United States) a special "bargain" with its bomb. Israel is the only nuclear-armed state that keeps its bomb invisible, unacknowledged, opaque. It will only say that it will not be the first to introduce nuclear weapons to the Middle East. The bomb is Israel's collective ineffable& mdash;the nation's last taboo. This bargain has a name: in Hebrew, it is called amimut, or opacity. By adhering to the bargain, which was born in a secret deal between Richard Nixon and Golda Meir, Israel creates a code of nuclear conduct that encompasses both governmental policy and societal behavior. The bargain lowers the salience of Israel's nuclear weapons, yet it also remains incompatible with the norms and values of liberal democracy. It relies on secrecy and opacity. It infringes on the public right to know and negates the notion of public accountability and oversight, among other offenses. Author of the critically acclaimed Israel and the Bomb, Avner Cohen offers a bold and original study of this politically explosive subject. Along with a fair appraisal of the bargain's strategic merits, Cohen provides a critique of its antidemocratic faults. Arguing that the bargain has become increasingly anachronistic, he calls for a reform in line with domestic democratic values as well as current international nuclear norms. Most important, he believes the old methods will prove inadequate in dealing with a nuclear Iran. Cohen concludes with fresh perspectives on Iran, Israel, and the effort toward global disarmament.

The Bomb

Author: Nic Von Wielligh
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781920188481
Size: 45.55 MB
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In 1993, South African President F.W. de Klerk announced that six-and-a-half nuclear bombs had been secretly built and destroyed. No other country has ever voluntarily destroyed its nuclear arsenal. In this book, nuclear physicist Nic von Wielligh and his daughter Lydia von Wielligh-Steyn tell the gripping story of the splitting of the atom and the power it realizes. It is an account of groundbreaking research and the scientists responsible; it deals with uranium enrichment, the arms race, and South Afria's secret program. The Bomb: South Africa's Nuclear Weapons Programme is a story of nuclear explosions, espionage, smuggling nuclear materials, and swords that became ploughshares. Professor Waldo Stumpf, the former CEO of the South African Atomic Energy Corporation, called The Bomb, the only comprehensive work so far on South Africa's part in this historic subject that has been turned into a thoroughly readable story. REVIEWS Early in the 1990 s former South African President F.W. de Klerk spilled the beans: South Africa had built six nuclear bombs since 1980 and was working on a seventh one. The Bomb tells the history of South Africa s nuclear programme, written by nuclear physicist Nic von Wielligh, who was involved in this project since 1975, and also managed the termination thereof. He is assisted by his clearly talented daughter Lydia. Being factually correct, and written objectively (albeit with a touch of understandable pride concerning the South African achievements before and after the decision to dismantle the programme) add value to the book. At least it shows that there were some aspects of the old South Africa to be proud of. The Bomb belongs to the bookshelf of anyone interested in what happened behind the scenes in South Africa before 1990."Leopold Scholtz, Media24 The Bomb is an insider account of the South African nuclear weapons program written by Nic von Wielligh, a nuclear physicist who worked for the South African Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC). He was intimately involved in the nuclear weapons program and held a high-ranking position at the AEC. The book is co-authored by his daughter Lydia von Wielligh-Steyn. It has the advantage of having been written by an insider who possesses knowledge that could not be gained through documents or interviews. This is precisely the book s major strength: other accounts tell what happened, but Nic von Wielligh goes a step further and illuminates how certain things happened, adding anecdotes when appropriate. The book fills a gap in the literature on the South African nuclear weapons program. It is an in-depth account that treats the case from its humble beginnings to the dismantlement of the nuclear weapons and the single facts have been woven into an exciting story. The no-nonsense approach taken by the authors and their way of presenting the case in a well-structured and informing manner makes it an important contribution."Aussereuropaische Geschichte // BuchrezensionenTitel"

Deal Of The Century

Author: Scott Ritter
Publisher: Clarity Press
ISBN: 9780997896503
Size: 78.16 MB
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The story of the Iranian nuclear agreement, as told in the West, is a classic narrative of good versus evil, where a recalcitrant Iran is driven to the negotiating table by crippling economic sanctions imposed by a international coalition led by the United States, and then compelled to surrender its nefarious designs for a nuclear weapon in the face of steely American negotiators. The reality is far different. Deal of the Century tells this story from the perspective of the Iranians, and in doing so takes the reader on a journey into a world seldom seen, and little understood, in the West. Iranian motives behind the nuclear negotiations are explored in depth, and the truth behind Iran s nuclear ambition is revealed, and explained. In the end, Iran concluded a nuclear agreement that saw it give up nothing (its core demand that Iran be permitted to possess an indigenous uranium enrichment capability remained unchanged from 2002 until 2015) while overcoming American-led opposition founded more on fiction than fact. Key Iranian personalities, such as Supreme Leader Khamenei, President Rouhani, Foreign Minister Zarif, and Parliamentary Speaker Ali Larjani, are brought to life in the text in a manner that belies the simplistic cartoon-like characterizations that more often than not appear in the West. Likewise, the author helps put into context the complex, Byzantine-like structures of Iranian theocratic governance in a manner that brings clarity to a system little understood in the West. The reader is exposed to the curious blend of religious zealotry and strict adherence to constitutional law that defines Iran s ruling system, especially as it is intertwined with the harsh realities of domestic Iranian politics and regional hostility from Israel and Iran s Gulf Arab neighbors, all of which influenced the pace and substance of Iran s nuclear negotiating position far more than any outside pressure brought to bear by the West. The author makes extensive use of Iranian sources and interviews to tell a story rich in detail, possessing both current and historical context, and which brings to life the other side of the story of the nuclear agreement, largely unknown in the West. Deal of the Century presents a counter-narrative where Iran actually does the world a service by charting a course out of the treacherous shoals of Western- induced fear and mistrust, and leading the negotiations onto a path that provides a meaningful chance for peace."

Preparing For War

Author: J. P. Clark
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674545737
Size: 44.62 MB
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The U.S. Army has always regarded preparing for war as its peacetime role, but how it fulfilled that duty has changed dramatically between the War of 1812 and World War I. J. P. Clark shows how differing personal experiences of war and peace among successive generations of professional soldiers left their mark upon the Army and its ways.