Tropical Forest Ecology

Author: Florencia Montagnini
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540237976
Size: 10.83 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 2615
Importance of tropical forests. Functions of tropical forests. Economic. Forest products. Timber. Fuelwood. Non- timber forest products. Ecotourism. Environmental services. Reserve for biodiversity. Regulation of climate. Local effects. Global effects. Social. Subsistence for local populations. The need for an integrated approach to Forest conservation and management. Characteristics of tropical forests. Characteristics relevant to management and conservation. High diversity. Latitudinal gradients of species diversity. The latitude effect. Effects of elevation on species diversity. Effects of soil fertility on species diversity. Influence of stress on species diversity. Other factors influencing diversity. Theories to explain high diversity in the tropics. Benefits of high diversity. Defense against pests and diseases. Complementarity. Implications of high diversity for forest management. Reproductive ecology of tropical trees. Timing/frequency of flowering and seed production. Modes of reproduction of tropical trees. Species interactions in the tropics. Energy flow. Delineation of the tropics. Primary production. Production patterns within the tropics. Light environment of tropical forests. Availability of light. Responses of plants to light. Light distribution in the forest. Herbivory. Decomposition. Nutrient cycling. Cycling rates in the tropics. Leaching and weathering. Nutrient-conserving mechanisms. "Direct" nutrient cycling. Concentration of roots near the soil surface. Nutrient storage in wood biomass. Other nutrient-conserving mechanisms. Role of soil organic matter in nutrient conservation. Effects of disturbance on nutrient stocks in the soil. Implications for forestry. Conclusion. Classification of tropical forests. Classification based on forest structure. Classification based on forest function. Climatic classifications. Functional variation along climatic gradients. Classification based on species. Classification at the community level. Classification based on "temperament" of species. Classification based on successional stage. Forest classification based upon soil nutrient status. Implications for management. The unesco classification system. Conclusion. Deforestation in the tropics. Rates of deforestation. Causes of deforestation. Proximate causes of deforestation. Expansion of agriculture. Wood extraction. Development of infrastructure. Underlying causes of deforestation. Economic. Political and institutional factors. Technological. Cultural. Demographic. External debt and deforestation. Effects of deforestation. Environmental effects of deforestation. Social and economic effects of deforestation. Effects on indigenous peoples. Effects on traditional rural peoples. Effects on recently arrived rural peoples. Benefits and costs of deforestation at the international and national levels. International. National. Conclusion. Management of tropical forests. Introduction. Natural forest management. Sustainable forest management. Systems used in management of natural forests in tropical regions. Natural regeneration systems. Partial clearing systems. Reduced impact logging (ril). Ecological and economic feasibility of methods of management of natural tropical forests. Criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management. Certification of forest management. Obstacles to sustainable forest management. Management of secondary forests. Techniques for management of secondary forests. Management for non-timber forest products (ntfps). Is forest management compatible with conservation of biodiversity?. Effects of forest management on wildlife. Reserves. Setting priorities. Conclusion. Plantations and agroforestry systems. Introduction. Plantation forestry: alternative to supplying the world's timber demand?. Plantation productivity. Sustainability of forest plantations. Plantations of native tree species. Mixed species plantations. Plantations and the conservation of biodiversity. Plantations in the landscape. Plantations as a tool for economic development. Agroforestry. Most frequently used agroforestry systems. Functions of agroforestry systems. Restoration of degraded tropical forest ecosystems. Recovery of degraded forests. Enrichment planting of degraded and secondary forests. Rehabilitation of degraded pasture and cropland. Recovery of the soil's productive capacity. Restoration of areas invaded by aggressive vegetation. Recovery of biodiversity in degraded lands. Conclusion. Approaches for implementing ustainable management techniques. Introduction. Top-down development. Top-down conservation planning. Bottom- up development. Participatory action. A case study of participatory action research and development case i: uruani: where par failed. Case ii: porto de moz: where par succeeded. Community forestry. Globalization. Globalization and forest resources. Case study of globalization. Locally centered development and integrated natural resource management (inrm). Importance of scale in efficiency of production. Conclusion. Conclusions. Introduction. Tropical forest classification. Tropical deforestation. Management of tropical forests. Plantations and agroforestry systems. Political and economic development strategies for sustainable forest development. References. Subject index.

Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests

Author: Rodolfo Dirzo
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 1610910214
Size: 59.57 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 2762
Though seasonally dry tropical forests are equally as important to global biodiversity as tropical rainforests, and are one of the most representative and highly endangered ecosystems in Latin America, knowledge about them remains limited because of the relative paucity of attention paid to them by scientists and researchers and a lack of published information on the subject. Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests seeks to address this shortcoming by bringing together a range of experts in diverse fields including biology, ecology, biogeography, and biogeochemistry, to review, synthesize, and explain the current state of our collective knowledge on the ecology and conservation of seasonally dry tropical forests. The book offers a synthetic and cross-disciplinary review of recent work with an expansive scope, including sections on distribution, diversity, ecosystem function, and human impacts. Throughout, contributors emphasize conservation issues, particularly emerging threats and promising solutions, with key chapters on climate change, fragmentation, restoration, ecosystem services, and sustainable use. Seasonally dry tropical forests are extremely rich in biodiversity, and are seriously threatened. They represent scientific terrain that is poorly explored, and there is an urgent need for increased understanding of the system's basic ecology. Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests represents an important step in bringing together the most current scientific information about this vital ecosystem and disseminating it to the scientific and conservation communities.

Tropical Rain Forest Ecology Diversity And Conservation

Author: Jaboury Ghazoul
Publisher: Oxford Univ Pr
ISBN: 9780199285877
Size: 40.56 MB
Format: PDF
View: 4601
Rain forests represent the world's richest repository of terrestrial biodiversity, and play a major role in regulating the global climate. They support the livelihoods of a substantial proportion of the world's population and are the source of many internationally traded commodities. They remain (despite decades of conservation attention) increasingly vulnerable to degradation and clearance, with profound though often uncertain future costs to global society. Understanding the ecology of these diverse biomes, and peoples' dependencies on them, is fundamental to their future management and conservation. Tropical Rain Forest Ecology, Diversity, and Conservation introduces and explores what rain forests are, how they arose, what they contain, how they function, and how humans use and impact them. The book starts by introducing the variety of rain forest plants, fungi, microorganisms, and animals, emphasising the spectacular diversity that is the motivation for their conservation. The central chapters describe the origins of rain forest communities, the variety of rain forest formations, and their ecology and dynamics. The challenge of explaining the species richness of rain forest communities lies at the heart of ecological theory, and forms a common theme throughout. The book's final section considers historical and current interactions of humans and rain forests. It explores biodiversity conservation as well as livelihood security for the many communities that are dependent on rain forests - inextricable issues that represent urgent priorities for scientists, conservationists, and policy makers.

Tropical Forests Management And Ecology

Author: Ariel E. Lugo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461224985
Size: 48.84 MB
Format: PDF
View: 1811
Forestry professors used to remind students that, whereas physicians bury their mistakes, foresters die before theirs are noticed. But good institutions live longer than the scientists who contribute to building them, and the half-century of work of the USDA Forest Service's Institute of Tropical Forestry (ITF) is in plain view: an unprecedented corpus of accomplishments that would instill pride in any organization. There is scarcely anyone interested in current issues of tropical forestry who would not benefit from a refresher course in ITF's findings: its early collaboration with farmers to establish plantations, its successes in what we now call social forestry, its continuous improvement of nursery practices, its screening trials of native species, its development of wood-processing technologies appropriate for developing countries, its thorough analysis of tropical forest function, and its holistic approach toward conservation of endangered species. Fortunately, ITF has a long history of information exchange through teaching; like many others, I got my own start in tropical forest ecology fromjust such a course in Puerto Rico. And long before politicians recognized the global importance of tropical forestry, the ITF staff served actively as ambassadors of the discipline, visiting tropical coun tries everywhere to learn and, when invited to do so, to help solve local problems. It is a general principle of biogeography that species' turnover rates on islands are higher than those on continents. Inevitably, the same is true of scientists assigned to work on islands.

The Ecology Of Trees In The Tropical Rain Forest

Author: I. M. Turner
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139428873
Size: 60.60 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
View: 483
Our knowledge of the ecology of tropical rain-forest trees is limited, with detailed information available for perhaps only a few hundred of the many thousand of species that occur. Yet a good understanding of the trees is essential to unravelling the workings of the forest itself. This book aims to summarise contemporary understanding of the ecology of tropical rain-forest trees. The emphasis is on comparative ecology, an approach that can help to identify possible adaptive trends and evolutionary constraints and which may also lead to a workable ecological classification for tree species, conceptually simplifying the rain-forest community and making it more amenable to analysis.

Tropical Forests In Transition

Author: J. Goldammer
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 3034872569
Size: 64.84 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 358
In evolutionary time scales natural disturbances have affected the vegetation on Earth. During the Quaternary the forest biomes of the tropics were subjected to manifold disturbances. Climate changes and climate oscillations were associated with changing precipitation and drought regimes, flooding, siltation, landslides, etc. The prehistorical forest was also influenced by the effects of large wildlife populations. Large-scale catastrophies in the forest biomes were mainly caused by abiotic environmental alterations, the small-scale disturbances were and still are related to both biotic and abiotic processes. Both the large-and the small-scale disturbances have played a significant role in shaping distribution, dynamics, structure and composition of the paleoforest. After the expansion of hominids and early humans, and later, by modern humans, the anthropogenic influences on the tropical forest began to overlap natural disturbances. Today's anthropogenic impacts on the tropical forests differ qualitatively and quanitatively from the natural disturbances. The speed of tropical deforestation and savannization is dramatically increasing. The physical and chemical impacts of forest conversion and biomass burning add to other anthropogenic influences on the atmosphere and climate. The expected anthropogenic climate change will also have considerable impacts on the tropical flora and fauna. The book on "Tropical Forests in Transition" synthesizes information on changing environmental conditions and human impacts on the tropical forest by looking back to the paleoecology, analyzing the impact of modern human populations and modeling the future of the tropical forest in a changing environment. The aim of the book is to strengthen multidisciplinary thinking in disturbance ecology.

Emerging Threats To Tropical Forests

Author: William F. Laurance
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226470229
Size: 73.75 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 3457
Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests reveals the remarkably diverse panoply of perils to tropical forests and their biota, with particular emphasis on recent dangers. William F. Laurance and Carlos A. Peres identify four categories of emerging threats: those that have only recently appeared, such as the virulent chytrid fungus that is decimating rainforest amphibians throughout the tropical world; those that are growing rapidly in importance, like destructive surface fires; those that are poorly understood, namely global warming and other climatic and atmospheric changes; and environmental synergisms, whereby two or more simultaneous threats—such as habitat fragmentation and wildfires, or logging and hunting—can dramatically increase local extinction of tropical species. In addition to documenting the vulnerability of tropical rainforests, the volume focuses on strategies for mitigating and combating emerging threats. A timely and compelling book intended for researchers, students, and conservation practitioners, Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests will interest anyone concerned about the fate of the world’s most threatened tropical ecosystems.

Tropical Forest Ecology

Author: Egbert Giles Leigh Jr.
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195357264
Size: 49.77 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 989
In Tropical Forest Ecology, Egbert G. Leigh, Jr., one of the world's foremost tropical ecologists, introduces readers to the tropical forest and describes the intricate web of interdependence among the great diversity of tropical plants and animals. Focusing on the tropical forest of Barro Colorado Island, Panama, Leigh shows what Barro Colorado can tell us about other tropical forests--and what tropical forests can tell us about Barro Colorado. This book considers three essential questions for understanding the ecological organization of tropical forests. How do they stay green with their abundance of herbivores? Why do they have such a diversity of plants and animals? And what role does mutualism play in the ecology of tropical forests? Beautifully written and abundantly illustrated, Tropical Forest Ecology will certainly appeal to a wide variety of scientists in the fields of evolution, tropical biology, botany, zoology, and natural history.

Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems

Author: H. Lieth
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444596496
Size: 56.54 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 7768
After publication of the first volume of the Tropical Rain Forest, the International Journal of Mycology and Lichenology commented ``This is a welcome addition to the literature on the ecology of tropical rain forests. The book provides a wealth of data and stimulating discussions and is of great interest to ecologists interested in tropical areas.'' Whereas the first volume dealt with system-ecological aspects such as community organization and processes, the present volume concentrates on biogeographical aspects such as species composition, diversity, and geographical variation. Recent ecological research in the tropical rain forest has greatly extended our understanding of biogeographical patterns of variation in the various groups of organisms, and has revealed many of the ecological and evolutionary forces that led to the present patterns of variation. Many important systems of co-evolution between the tropical rain forest ecosystems have also come to light, and the loss of species and related damage is better understood in quantitative terms. This volume presents a comprehensive review of these and other features of the rain forest ecosystem structure, and the ecological processes operating that system. General chapters on abiotic and biotic factors are followed by specific chapters on all major groups of organisms. Prospects for the future are discussed and research needs clearly stated. Also the human exploitation of the system, its effects and its limits are discussed. The book is extensively illustrated by photographs, graphs, and tables, and comprehensive bibliographies follow each chapter. Author, systematic and subject indices complete the book. It is a must for all ecologists, agriculturists, foresters, agronomists, hydrologists, soil scientists, entomologists, human ecologists, nature conservationists, and planners dealing with tropical areas. Biologists and environmentalists will also find the volume of great interest.

Tropical Ecology

Author: John Kricher
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400838950
Size: 61.76 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
View: 5020
This full-color illustrated textbook offers the first comprehensive introduction to all major aspects of tropical ecology. It explains why the world's tropical rain forests are so universally rich in species, what factors may contribute to high species richness, how nutrient cycles affect rain forest ecology, and how ecologists investigate the complex interrelationships among flora and fauna. It covers tropical montane ecology, riverine ecosystems, savanna, dry forest--and more. Tropical Ecology begins with a historical overview followed by a sweeping discussion of biogeography and evolution, and then introduces students to the unique and complex structure of tropical rain forests. Other topics include the processes that influence everything from species richness to rates of photosynthesis: how global climate change may affect rain forest characteristics and function; how fragmentation of ecosystems affects species richness and ecological processes; human ecology in the tropics; biodiversity; and conservation of tropical ecosystems and species. Drawing on real-world examples taken from actual research, Tropical Ecology is the best textbook on the subject for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Offers the first comprehensive introduction to tropical ecology Describes all the major kinds of tropical terrestrial ecosystems Explains species diversity, evolutionary processes, and coevolutionary interactions Features numerous color illustrations and examples from actual research Covers global warming, deforestation, reforestation, fragmentation, and conservation The essential textbook for advanced undergraduates and graduate students Suitable for courses with a field component Leading universities that have adopted this book include: Biola University Bucknell University California State University, Fullerton Colorado State University - Fort Collins Francis Marion University Michigan State University Middlebury College Northern Kentucky University Ohio Wesleyan University St. Mary's College of Maryland Syracuse University Tulane University University of California, Santa Cruz University of Central Florida University of Cincinnati University of Florida University of Missouri University of New Mexico University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of the West Indies Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.