Transposable Elements

Author: Esra Galun
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401735824
Size: 40.88 MB
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OY (])PONEOYLI TOIA YTA IIOAAOI OKOEOJII Many fail to grasp what they have seen, and cannot judge what they have learned, ErKYPEOYLI OYL1E MA®ONTEE ITINOEKOYIT although they tell themselves they know. EQYTOJII L1E L10KEOYLI Heraclitus of Ephesus, 500 BC " ... everyone that is not speckled and C~T~v: N,;~, 'T,ji~ ,~~~N ,tuN '= spotted among the goats and brown among the sheep, that shall be counted ~~N N,n =,~, c~w=== c,m stolen with me." Genesis Chapter 30 From Heraclitus of Ephesus and later philosophers, we can deduce that observation of natural phenomena, even when keen and accurate, will not result in meaningful knowledge unless combined with analysis of the mind; just as analysis of the mind without acquaintance with natural phenomena will not suffice to grasp the perceivable world. Only familiarity with phenomena combined with mental analysis will lead to additional knowledge. The citation from Genesis, Chapter 30, is part of an unusual story. It tells how Jacob received, as payment for his service to Laban, the bulk of Laban's herds. By agreement, Jacob was to receive "only" the newborn speckled and spotted goats and the newborn brown sheep that differed completely from their parents. Did Jacob know that there was instability (transposable elements?) in the pigmentation of Laban's herd? It is reasonable to assume that Jacob combined his keen observation with analysis of his mind in order to predict the outcome: most of the newborns were indeed speckled, spotted or brown.

Reticulate Evolution

Author: Nathalie Gontier
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319163450
Size: 55.49 MB
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Written for non-experts, this volume introduces the mechanisms that underlie reticulate evolution. Chapters are either accompanied with glossaries that explain new terminology or timelines that position pioneering scholars and their major discoveries in their historical contexts. The contributing authors outline the history and original context of discovery of symbiosis, symbiogenesis, lateral gene transfer, hybridization or divergence with gene flow and infectious heredity. By applying key insights from the areas of molecular (phylo)genetics, microbiology, virology, ecology, systematics, immunology, epidemiology and computational science, they demonstrate how reticulate evolution impacts successful survival, fitness and speciation. Reticulate evolution brings forth a challenge to the standard Neo-Darwinian framework, which defines life as the outcome of bifurcation and ramification patterns brought forth by the vertical mechanism of natural selection. Reticulate evolution puts forward a pattern in the tree of life that is characterized by horizontal mergings and lineage crossings induced by symbiosis, symbiogenesis, lateral gene transfer, hybridization or divergence with gene flow and infective heredity, making the “tree of life” look more like a “web of life.” On an epistemological level, the various means by which hereditary material can be transferred horizontally challenges our classic notions of units and levels of evolution, fitness, modes of transmission, linearity, communities and biological individuality. The case studies presented examine topics including the origin of the eukaryotic cell and its organelles through symbiogenesis; the origin of algae through primary and secondary symbiosis and dinoflagellates through tertiary symbiosis; the superorganism and holobiont as units of evolution; how endosymbiosis induces speciation in multicellular life forms; transferrable and non-transferrable plasmids and how they symbiotically interact with their host; the means by which pro- and eukaryotic organisms transfer genes laterally (bacterial transformation, transduction and conjugation as well as transposons and other mobile genetic elements); hybridization and divergence with gene flow in sexually-reproducing individuals; current (human) microbiome and viriome studies that impact our knowledge concerning the evolution of organismal health and acquired immunity; and how symbiosis and symbiogenesis can be modelled in computational evolution.

Microbial Genomics Challenge Darwin

Author: Didier Raoult
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889191222
Size: 33.15 MB
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The 200th anniversary of Darwin’s birthday was celebrated in 2009, making the concept of Darwinism even more popular than at the time it was originally proposed, to the extent that it has acquired quasi-religious status. His theory revolves around a Tree of Life in which all living organisms are considered to have descended from a single ancestor, and each node represents a common ancestor. It comprises hierarchy and dichotomy, which are typical characteristics of the post-biblical 19th century vision. Indeed, according to post-modern philosophy (also called the French theory) the majority of theories, including scientific ones, are based only on meta-narratives expressing the influence of a culture at a given time. Buddhism or Hinduism may have generated a very different story of evolution. Our way of thinking about life, and the way we describe evolution, have changed radically in the 21st century due to the genomic revolution. Comparative genome analyses have demonstrated that gene repertoires are characterized by plasticity, and there is strong evidence that nearly all genes have been exchanged at some point. Genomic data show that the genetic information of living organisms is inherited not only vertically but also laterally. Lateral gene transfers were at first observed only in bacteria, which contain genes originating from eukaryotes, Archaea and viruses. Such transfers were subsequently identified in all living organisms; giant viruses have chimeric genomes and the human genome is a mosaic of genes with eukaryotic, bacterial, and viral origins. We cannot identify a single common ancestor for the gene repertoire of any organism. Furthermore, a very high proportion of genes have been newly created through gene fusion or degradation, and others show no homology to sequences found in other species. It is now clear that every living organism has a variety of ancestors, while exchanges between species are intense, and the creation of new genes is frequent and permanent in all living organisms. Our current genomic knowledge contradicts the tree of life theory, as established by Darwin. Recent analyses have produced bushes rather than resolved trees, with the structure of some parts remaining elusive. It becomes more and more obvious that phylogenetic relationships are better described by forests and networks and that species evolution looks more like a rhizome. The chimerism and mosaic structure of all living organisms through both non-vertical inheritance and de novo creation can only be assimilated and described by a post-Darwinist concept. In this Research Topic we wish to highlight the influence of microbiology and genomics on our understanding of the complexity of gene repertoires, and also demonstrate how current knowledge does not support Darwin’s theory. Microbiology has offered a great advance in the way we perceive life. Evidence obtained from studies on bacterial and viral evolution, lateral inheritance, phylogenetic trees and biodiversity continues to challenge what constituted, until recently, an unimpeded dogma in biology.

Transposable Elements

Author: Heinz Saedler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642797954
Size: 34.31 MB
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Most genes are lined up on chromosomes like pearls on a string. However, a certain class of genes differ by being highly mobile; and the mecha they are termed transposons. Their properties of transposition will be described in this book. nism is the rule, irregularities like a spot on a Where uniformity plain-coloured surface strike the eye. Thus the phenomenon of has long been a source of fascina variegation among organisms In plants, variegation is most easily recognised as irregulari tion. in pigment patterns on leaves, flowers and seeds, but other ties as leaf or flower form might also show characteristics such In 1588, such a variegation pattern was described in variegation. kernels of Zea mays by Jacob Theodor of Bergzabern, a village is so detailed that if south of Strasbourg. The report by Theodor one counts the different kernel phenotypes described it be is looking at a Mendelian segrega comes clear that the author had tion. It goes without saying that Latin-American Indians already bred such variegated material much earlier, but no descriptions have yet been uncovered. Meanwhile, genetically heritable variegation patterns have been described at many different loci in more than 34 different plant species.

Formulation Of Microbial Biopesticides

Author: H.D. Burges
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401149267
Size: 22.41 MB
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Sound formulation is a vital aspect of microbial products used to protect plants from pests and diseases and to improve plant performance. Formulation of Microbial Biopesticides is an in-depth treatment of this vitally important subject. Written by experts and carefully edited, this important title brings together a huge wealth of information for the first time within the covers of one book. The book is broadly divided into five sections, covering principles of formulation, organisms with peroral and contact modes of action, organisms with the power of search, and future trends. Each section contains comprehensive chapters written by internationally acknowledged experts in the areas covered; the book also includes three very useful appendices, cataloguing formulation additives, spray application criteria and terminology. This outstanding book is a vitally important reference work for anyone involved in the formulation of microbial biopesticides and should find a place on the shelves of agriculture and plant scientists, microbiologists and entomologists working in academic and commercial agrochemical situations, and in the libraries of all research establishments and companies where this exciting subject is researched, studied or taught.

Transposable Elements And Genome Evolution

Author: J. F. McDonald
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401141568
Size: 55.11 MB
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Once considered merely `selfish' or `parasitic' DNA, transposable elements are today recognized as being of major biological significance. Not only are these elements a major source of mutation, they have contributed both directly and indirectly to the evolution of genome structure and function. On October 8-10, 1999, 100 molecular biologists and evolutionists representing 11 countries met on the campus of The University of Georgia in Athens for the inaugural Georgia Genetics Symposium. The topics of presentations ranged from how the elements themselves have evolved to the impact transposable elements have had on the evolution of their host genomes. The papers in this volume therefore represent state-of-the-art thinking, by leading world experts in the field, on the evolutionary significance of transposable elements.

Plant Molecular Evolution

Author: J.J. Doyle
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401142211
Size: 66.47 MB
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Plant molecular biology has produced an ever-increasing flood of data about genes and genomes. Evolutionary biology and systematics provides the context for synthesizing this information. This book brings together contributions from evolutionary biologists, systematists, developmental geneticists, biochemists, and others working on diverse aspects of plant biology whose work touches to varying degrees on plant molecular evolution. The book is organized in three parts, the first of which introduces broad topics in evolutionary biology and summarizes advances in plant molecular phylogenetics, with emphasis on model plant systems. The second segment presents a series of case studies of gene family evolution, while the third gives overviews of the evolution of important plant processes such as disease resistance, nodulation, hybridization, transposable elements and genome evolution, and polyploidy.

Molecular Mechanisms Of Resistance To Agrochemicals

Author: Volkert Sjut
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540624615
Size: 57.52 MB
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Mechanism of resistance to fungicides. Molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Mechanisms of resistance to acaricides. Mechanisms of resistance to herbicides. Plant engineering for crop protection: implications for resistance management.

Concepts Of Genetics Books A La Carte Edition

Author: William S. Klug
Publisher: Pearson
ISBN: 9780134818924
Size: 67.46 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This loose-leaf, three-hole punched version of the textbook gives students the flexibility to take only what they need to class and add their own notes--all at an affordable price. For all introductory genetics courses. Teach students core genetics concepts and applications Concepts of Genetics emphasizes the fundamental ideas of genetics, while exploring modern techniques and applications of genetic analysis. This best-selling text continues to provide understandable explanations of complex, analytical topics and recognizes the importance of teaching students how to become effective problem solvers. The 12th Edition has been extensively updated to provide comprehensive coverage of important, emerging topics such as CRISPR-Cas and the study of posttranscriptional gene regulation in eukaryotes. An expanded emphasis on ethical considerations that genetics is bringing into everyday life is addressed in Genetics, Ethics, and Society and Case Study features. The accompanying Mastering(tm) Genetics online platform is updated with new tutorials and Dynamic Study Modules. Also available with Mastering Genetics Mastering(tm) is the teaching and learning platform that empowers you to reach every student. By combining trusted author content with digital tools developed to engage students and emulate the office-hour experience, Mastering personalizes learning and improves results for each student. With a wide range of interactive, engaging, and assignable activities, students are encouraged to actively learn and retain tough course concepts. Learn more about Mastering Genetics.