Toxicological Effects Of Perfluoroalkyl And Polyfluoroalkyl Substances

Author: Jamie C. DeWitt
Publisher: Humana Press
ISBN: 3319155180
Size: 52.10 MB
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This book serves as a timely and comprehensive overview of the latest science for perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), covering the development of methods for assessing PFASs in biological fluids and tissues as well as the current knowledge regarding their toxicity to vertebrate organisms. This book includes chapters on human and wildlife exposure/body burdens, reviews of metabolism and toxicological effects by organ system/developmental stage and aspects of PFAS toxicity that are driving PFAS research and regulatory oversight. Toxicological Effects of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances provide critical assessments of the most controversial topics surrounding toxicological evaluation of PFASs to give readers an expert perspective on the issues. Emphasis is placed on the integration of modes and mechanisms of action with functional endpoints that are relevant to human and wildlife health. This book will be a useful resource for toxicologists, environmental chemists, risk assessors and researchers with an interest in the class of compounds known as perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

Marine Mammal Ecotoxicology

Author: Maria Cristina Fossi
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128122501
Size: 11.47 MB
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Marine Mammal Ecotoxicology: Impacts of Multiple Stressors on Population Health provides tactics on how to develop a comprehensive methodology for the study of existing threats to marine mammals. By presenting a conservation-biology approach and new and emerging technologies, this work helps provide crucial knowledge on the status of marine mammal populations that not only helps readers understand the ecosystem’s health, but also instigate mitigation measures. This volume provides information that helps investigators unravel the relationships between exposure to environmental stressors (e.g., climate change, pollutants, marine litter, pathogens and biotoxins) and a range of endpoints in marine mammal species. The application of robust examination procedures and biochemical, immunological, and molecular techniques, combined with pathological examination and feeding ecology, has led to the development of health assessment methods at the individual and population levels in wild marine mammals. Provides a comprehensive, worldwide update and state of knowledge on current research and topics on marine mammal ecotoxicology Includes coverage of both new and emerging technologies Features a multidisciplinary approach that gives readers a broad, updated overview of the threats facing marine mammals and related conservation measures

Environmental Determinants Of Human Health

Author: Jozef M. Pacyna
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319431420
Size: 38.22 MB
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Polluted air and contaminated food and water are major causes of human health deterioration, but public health policy has long struggled to effectively address these concerns. This timely book--written for a wide audience of policy makers, researchers, and general readers--synthesizes what we already know about environmental hazards, identifies the gaps in our knowledge, and provides a roadmap for reducing human exposure to environmental pollution. With contributions from leading experts, Environmental Determinants of Human Health examines numerous pollutants, both inorganic and organic, in the context of their human health impacts. Individual chapters explore exposure pathways, macroeconomic impacts of human health deterioration, technological and non-technological methods for reducing exposures, monetary and non-monetary benefits from exposure reduction, and risk communication and awareness, including citizen participation approaches. This volume is a crucial text for policy makers requiring scientific justification for the development of new environmental regulations, scientists researching public health and environmental contamination, and members of the public interested in human health issues.

Toxicological Risk Assessment For Beginners

Author: Jose Torres
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319127519
Size: 35.30 MB
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This book serves as a comprehensive introductory guide to the practical aspects of risk assessment. Chapters include clearly defined objectives and summaries. The book includes: hazard identification, dose-response, exposure assessment, risk characterization, chemical mixtures, epidemiology, emerging issues and global perspectives with accessible language. The book concludes with a set of hypothetical case studies. Toxicological Risk Assessment for Beginners aims not to create an expert, but rather to provide readers with their first understanding of the risk assessment topic. This book was designed with the student in mind. We simplify a complex process for beginners and balance theory with practical aspects, but remain fluid enough to increase difficulty with case studies. By incorporating an action based, step by step approach to learning the risk assessment process, this book provides its readers with an elementary understanding of how the risk assessment process is initiated, developed and finished, making it a valuable guide for graduate students, post-doctoral fellows and early career scientists in industry.

Methylmercury And Neurotoxicity

Author: Sandra Ceccatelli
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146142383X
Size: 11.66 MB
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Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that knows no environmental boundaries. Even the most stringent control of anthropogenic Hg sources will not eliminate exposure given its ubiquitous presence. Exposure to Hg occurs primarily via the food chain due to MeHg’s accumulation in fish. Latest US statistics indicate that 46 States have fish consumption advisories. In addition, Hg is a common pollutant in hazardous waste sites, with an estimated 3-4 million children living within one mile of at least one of the 1,300+ active hazardous waste sites in the US. The effects on intellectual function in children prenatally exposed to MeHg via maternal fish consumption have been the subject of two on-going major, prospective, longitudinal studies in the Seychelles and the Faroe Islands. It is important to recognize that the risk for MeHg exposure is not limited only to islanders with high fish consumption. This book will provide state-of-the-art information to the graduate student training in toxicology, risk assessors, researchers and medical providers at large. It is aimed to bring the reader up to date on contemporary issues associated with exposure to methylmercury, from its effects on stem cells and neurons to population studies.

Environmental Epigenetics

Author: L. Joseph Su
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1447166787
Size: 75.64 MB
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This book examines the toxicological and health implications of environmental epigenetics and provides knowledge through an interdisciplinary approach. Included in this volume are chapters outlining various environmental risk factors such as phthalates and dietary components, life states such as pregnancy and ageing, hormonal and metabolic considerations and specific disease risks such as cancer cardiovascular diseases and other non-communicable diseases. Environmental Epigenetics imparts integrative knowledge of the science of epigenetics and the issues raised in environmental epidemiology. This book is intended to serve both as a reference compendium on environmental epigenetics for scientists in academia, industry and laboratories and as a textbook for graduate level environmental health courses. Environmental Epigenetics imparts integrative knowledge of the science of epigenetics and the issues raised in environmental epidemiology. This book is intended to serve both as a reference compendium on environmental epigenetics for scientists in academia, industry and laboratories and as a textbook for graduate level environmental health courses.

Wastewater Reuse And Current Challenges

Author: Despo Fatta-Kassinos
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319238922
Size: 35.22 MB
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This volume discusses the current challenges related to the reuse of wastewater. It reviews the analytical methodologies for evaluating emerging contaminants and their transformation products, the sensitivity of various bioassays for assessing the biological effects of treated wastewater, and the bioavailability and uptake of organic contaminants during crop irrigation. It describes in detail the physicochemical and microbiological alterations in soil resulting from irrigation with treated urban wastewater, and discusses our current understanding of antibiotic resistance in wastewater treatment plants and in downstream environments. The book also includes an analysis of the effect of wastewater entering drinking water sources and production, and provides updated information on wastewater reuse for irrigation in North Africa. It presents an important integration tool for water recovery, known as water pinch analysis, and finally showcases two other examples of reuse – one in the paper industry and one in landfill management. It is of interest to experts from various fields of research, including analytical and environmental chemistry, toxicology and environmental and sanitary engineering.

Technology Of Fluoropolymers

Author: Jiri George Drobny
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420042672
Size: 24.50 MB
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Since Plunkett's discovery of Teflon (PTFE) in 1938, many new types of fluorine-containing polymers have been developed, especially during last two decades. The worldwide annual production capacity for fluoropolymers is estimated to be 135,000 metric tons. Continuing research and development provides new and interesting products that will help advance other technological fields, health care and consumer products, to name a few, and will greatly contribute to the improvement of our quality of life. Written by an industry veteran, Technology of Fluoropolymers provides comprehensive, state-of-the-art information on the chemistry, properties, and applications of commercially available fluoropolymers, including new and emerging polymers and technologies. It contains basic scientific information, yet is primarily geared toward practical processes and applications. Particular attention is given to the structure-property relationships in order to help understand the behavior in processing and service. With a practical, well-organized approach, the author provides an accessible introduction to fluoropolymers for those just entering the field, and a solid reference for those already working in the industry.

Waterproof And Water Repellent Textiles And Clothing

Author: John T Williams
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0081011342
Size: 73.71 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Waterproof and Water Repellent Textiles and Clothing provides systematic coverage of the key types of finishes and high performance materials, from conventional wax and silicone, through controversial, but widely used fluoropolymers and advanced techniques, such as atmospheric plasma deposition and sol-gel technology. The book is an essential resource for all those engaged in garment development, production and finishing, and for academics engaged in research into apparel technology and textile science. Rapid innovation in this field is driving new performance demands in many areas, including the sporting and military sectors. However, another innovation driver is the regulatory framework in the USA, Europe and globally, addressing both health concerns (e.g. with PFOS / PFOA) and environmental impacts (e.g. C8 fluorocarbon finishes). Both of these aspects are fully covered, along with the replacement materials / technologies currently available and under development. In addition, oleophobic and multifunctional coatings are discussed, as are aspects of performance, testing and applications in sportswear, protective clothing, and footwear. Introduces innovative materials and technologies, exploring their current and potential use across different sectors Provides expert guidance on the health and environmental aspects of key waterproof materials and coatings and their associated regulations Demystifies testing processes and design principles