The Unfinished Transition To Democracy In Latin America

Author: Juan Carlos Calleros-Alarcón
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135907226
Size: 74.37 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 5388
Download
This book examines the political evolution of the judiciary – a usually overlooked political actor – and its capacity to contribute to the process of democratic consolidation in Latin America during the 1990s. Calleros analyzes twelve countries in order to assess the independence, impartiality, political strength and efficiency of the judicial branch. The picture that emerges – with the one exception of Costa Rica – is the persistence of weak judicial systems, unable in practice to check other branches of government, including the executive and the military, while not quite effective in fully protecting human rights or in implementing due process of law guarantees. Aggravating issues, such as corruption, heavy case backlogs, overcrowding of prisons, circumvention of laws and personal vulnerability of judges, make the judiciary the least evolved of the three branches of government in the Latin American transitions to democracy.

The Politics Of Central American Integration

Author: Rafael A. Sánchez Sánchez
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135843457
Size: 18.30 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 903
Download
Since its inception in the 1960s to the regional negotiations in the 1990s and onwards, Central American integration has been a process characterized by both dramatic advances and setbacks. This book provides a theoretical explanation of this ebb and flow, examining different stages including the military conflicts of the 1980s, the subsequent Esquipulas peace process, and the relaunch of integration during the 1990s under the System of Central American Integration (SICA). Sánchez Sánchez's analysis focuses on the policies and preferences of the larger states of the region, Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala, and argues that integration relies on intergovernmental bargaining. Interviews, historical and comparative data are presented in a format invaluable for students and teachers concerned with comparative regional integration, as well as for those seeking a greater understanding of contemporary Central American regional and international politics and development.

Fixing Democracy

Author: Javier Corrales
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190868929
Size: 21.50 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 816
Download
The study of institutions, a core concept in comparative politics, has produced many rich and influential theories on the economic and political effects of institutions, yet it has been less successful at theorizing their origins. In Fixing Democracy, Javier Corrales develops a theory of institutional origins that concentrates on constitutions and levels of power within them. He reviews numerous Latin American constituent assemblies and constitutional amendments to explore why some democracies expand rather than restrict presidential powers and why this heightened presidentialism discourages democracy. His signal theoretical contribution is his elaboration on power asymmetries. Corrales determines that conditions of reduced power asymmetry make constituent assemblies more likely to curtail presidential powers, while weaker opposition and heightened power asymmetry is an indicator that presidential powers will expand. The bargain-based theory that he uses focuses on power distribution and provides a more accurate variable in predicting actual constitutional outcomes than other approaches based on functionalism or ideology. While the empirical focus is Latin America, Fixing Democracy contributes a broadly applicable theory to the scholarship both institutions and democracy.

Multiple Injustices

Author: R. Aída Hernández Castillo
Publisher: University of Arizona Press
ISBN: 0816532494
Size: 37.56 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 4979
Download
Draws together over two decades of research by the author into activism and legal pluralism as practiced and understood by Indigenous women in Latin American countries, analyzing the struggles of indigenous women in Mexico, Guatemala, and Colombia to secure justice and equal rights. The ethnographic approach taken in the book analyzes activism and legal pluralism at the local, state, and international scales and synthesizes the author's experiences interacting with activists at those different levels. The manuscript draws on critical discourse and feminist theories to address the tensions and struggles indigenous women activists face in Latin America.

The Achilles Heel Of Democracy

Author: Rachel E. Bowen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107178320
Size: 72.88 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 2772
Download
Featuring the first in-depth comparison of the judicial politics of five under-studied Central American countries, The Achilles Heel of Democracy offers a novel typology of 'judicial regime types' based on the political independence and societal autonomy of the judiciary. This book highlights the under-theorized influences on the justice system - criminals, activists, and other societal actors, and the ways that they intersect with more overtly political influences. Grounded in interviews with judges, lawyers, and activists, it presents the 'high politics' of constitutional conflicts in the context of national political conflicts as well as the 'low politics' of crime control and the operations of trial-level courts. The book begins in the violent and often authoritarian 1980s in Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, and spans through the tumultuous 2015 'Guatemalan Spring'; the evolution of Costa Rica's robust liberal judicial regime is traced from the 1950s.

Sociological Abstracts

Author: Leo P. Chall
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 40.26 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 6942
Download
CSA Sociological Abstracts abstracts and indexes the international literature in sociology and related disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences. The database provides abstracts of journal articles and citations to book reviews drawn from over 1,800+ serials publications, and also provides abstracts of books, book chapters, dissertations, and conference papers.

Reclaiming The Land

Author: Sam Moyo
Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
ISBN: 1848137656
Size: 42.76 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 7138
Download
Rural movements have recently emerged to become some of the most important social forces in opposition to neoliberalism. From Brazil and Mexico to Zimbabwe and the Philippines, rural movements of diverse political character, but all sharing the same social basis of dispossessed peasants and unemployed workers, have used land occupations and other tactics to confront the neoliberal state. This volume brings together for the first time across three continents - Africa, Latin America and Asia - an intellectually consistent set of original investigations into this new generation of rural social movements. These country studies seek to identify their social composition, strategies, tactics, and ideologies; to assess their relations with other social actors, including political parties, urban social movements, and international aid agencies and other institutions; and to examine their most common tactic, the land occupation, its origins, pace and patterns, as well as the responses of governments and landowners. At a more fundamental level, this volume explores the ways in which two decades of neoliberal policy - including new land tenure arrangements intended to hasten the commodification of land, and new land uses linked to global markets -- have undermined the social reproduction of the rural labour force and created the conditions for popular resistance. The volume demonstrates the longer-term potential impact of these movements. In economic terms, they raise the possibility of tackling immiseration by means of the redistribution of land and the reorganisation of production on a more efficient and socially responsible basis. And in political terms, breaking the power of landowners and transnational capital with interests in land could ultimately open the way to an alternative pattern of capital accumulation and development.

Chile In Transition

Author: Roland Benedikter
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319179519
Size: 78.11 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 1102
Download
The economic, political and social situation in Chile shows a country in transition. Some observers anticipate a broad “reboot” of the nation. While Chile is still seen by many as an example of progress in South America and of developmental potential in the global South, it faces a complex political constellation, particularly in the aftermath of the re-election of Michelle Bachelet. Many wonder how social and institutional innovations can be incepted without interrupting the country’s remarkable success over the past decades. This book provides an interdisciplinary analysis of Chile’s situation and perspectives. In particular, it addresses the questions: What is Chile’s real socio-political situation behind the curtains, irrespective of simplifications? What are the nation’s main opportunities and problems? What future strategies will be concretely applicable to improve social balance and mitigate ideological divisions? The result is a provocative examination of a nation in search of identity and its role on the global stage. Roland Benedikter, Dr. Dr. Dr., is Research Scholar at the Orfalea Center for Global and International Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara, Senior Research Scholar of the Council on Hemispheric Affairs Washington D.C., Trustee of the Toynbee Prize Foundation Boston and Full Member of the Club of Rome. Katja Siepmann, MA, is Senior Research Fellow of the Counc il on Hemispheric Affairs Washington D.C., Member of the German Council on Foreign Relations, and Lecturer at the Faculty of Interdisciplinary Cultural Sciences of the European University Frankfurt/Oder. The volume features a Foreword by Ned Strong, Executive Director of the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, Harvard University, and a Preface by Larry Birns, Director of the Council on Hemispheric Affairs, Washington D.C., and Former Senior Public Affairs Officer of the United Nations’ Economic Commission for Latin America (Santiago, Chile).