The Supporting Roots Of Trees And Woody Plants Form Function And Physiology

Author: A. Stokes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401734690
Size: 32.45 MB
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This publication comprises the proceedings of the first International Conference devoted to the structural roots of trees and woody plants. 'The Supporting Roots - Structure and Function,' 20-24 July 1998, Bordeaux, France. The meeting was held under the auspices ofIUFRO WPS 2. 01. 13 'Root Physiology and Symbiosis,' and its aim was to bring together scientific researchers, foresters and arboriculturalists, to discuss current problems in structural root research and disseminate knowledge to an audience from a wide disciplinary background. For the first time in an international conference, emphasis was placed on presenting recent reseach in the field of tree anchorage mechanics and root biomechanics. The way in which tree stability can be affected by root system symmetry and architecture was addressed, as well as how movement during wind sway can influence the development and shape of woody roots. The role of different nursery and planting techniques was discussed, in relation to effects on root system form and development. Root response to different environmental stresses, including water, temperature, nutrient and mechanical stress was addressed in detail. The structure and function of woody roots was also considered at different levels, from coarse to fine roots, with several papers discussing the interaction between roots and the rhizosphere. One of the conference highlights was the presentation of new methods in root research, by a series of workshops held at LRBB-INRA, Pierroton, on the northern border of the Gascony forest.

Physiology Of Woody Plants

Author: Theodore T. Kozlowski
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080538975
Size: 23.10 MB
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This completely revised classic volume is an up-to-date synthesis of the intensive research devoted to woody plants. Intended primarily as a text for students and a reference for researchers, this interdisciplinary book should be useful to a broad range of scientists from agroforesters, agronomists, and arborists to plant pathologists, ecophysiologists, and soil scientists. Anyone interested in plant physiology will find this text invaluable. Includes supplementary chapter summaries and lists of general references Provides a solid foundation of reference information Thoroughly updated classic text/reference

Plant Stems

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080539089
Size: 74.51 MB
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Stems, of various sizes and shapes, are involved in most of the organic processes and interactions of plants, ranging from support, transport, and storage to development and protection. The stem itself is a crucially important intermediary: it links above- and below ground organs-connecting roots to leaves. An international team of leading researchers vividly illustrate that stems are more than pipes, more than simple connecting and supporting structures; rather stems are critical, anatomically distinct structures of enormous variability. It is, to an unappreciated extent, this variability that underpins both the diversity and the success of plants in myriad ecosystems. Plant Stems will be a valuable resource on form/function relationships for researchers and graduate-level students in ecology, evolutionary biology, physiology, development, genetics, agricultural sciences, and horticulture as they unravel the mechanisms and processes that allow organisms and ecosystems to function. Syntheses of structural, physiological, and ecological functions of stems Multiple viewpoints on how stem structure relates to performance Highlights of major areas of plant biology long neglected

Physiology Of Woody Plants

Author: Paul Kramer
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323142362
Size: 72.28 MB
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Physiology of Woody Plants explains how physiological processes are involved in growth of woody plants and how they are affected by the environment, including the mechanisms of the processes themselves. Organized into 17 chapters, this book discusses the role of plant physiology, as well as the form and structure of woody plant. It also explores the nature and periodicity of shoot, cambial, root, and reproductive growth of trees of the temperate and tropical zones. Other topics elucidated are the process of photosynthesis and respiration, the various substances found in woody plants, plant nutrition, and factors affecting plant growth. This book will be valuable as a text to students and teachers and as a reference to investigators and others who desire a better understanding of how woody plants grow.

Plant Roots

Author: Amram Eshel
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439846480
Size: 73.64 MB
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The decade since the publication of the third edition of this volume has been an era of great progress in biology in general and the plant sciences in particular. This is especially true with the advancements brought on by the sequencing of whole genomes of model organisms and the development of "omics" techniques. This fourth edition of Plant Roots: The Hidden Half reflects these developments that have transformed not only the field of biology, but also the many facets of root science. Highlights of this new edition include: The basics of root research and their evolution and role in the global context of soil development and atmosphere composition New understandings about roots gained in the post-genomic era, for example, how the development of roots became possible, and the genetic basis required for this to occur The mechanisms that determine root structure, with chapters on cellular patterning, lateral root and vascular development, the molecular basis of adventitious roots, and other topics Plant hormone action and signaling pathways that control root development, including new chapters on strigolactones and brassinosteroids Soil resource acquisition from agricultural and ecological perspectives Root response to stress, with chapters that address the impact of the genomic revolution on this topic Root-rhizosphere interactions, from beneficial microorganisms to detrimental nematodes Modern research techniques for the field and the lab Each chapter not only presents a clear summation of the topic under discussion, but also includes a vision of what is to be expected in the years to come. The wide coverage of themes in this volume continues the tradition that makes this work recognized as a fundamental source of information for root scientists at all levels.

Vascular Transport In Plants

Author: N. Michelle Holbrook
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080454238
Size: 48.42 MB
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Vascular Transport in Plants provides an up-to-date synthesis of new research on the biology of long distance transport processes in plants. It is a valuable resource and reference for researchers and graduate level students in physiology, molecular biology, physiology, ecology, ecological physiology, development, and all applied disciplines related to agriculture, horticulture, forestry and biotechnology. The book considers long-distance transport from the perspective of molecular level processes to whole plant function, allowing readers to integrate information relating to vascular transport across multiple scales. The book is unique in presenting xylem and phloem transport processes in plants together in a comparative style that emphasizes the important interactions between these two parallel transport systems. Includes 105 exceptional figures Discusses xylem and phloem transport in a single volume, highlighting their interactions Syntheses of structure, function and biology of vascular transport by leading authorities Poses unsolved questions and stimulates future research Provides a new conceptual framework for vascular function in plants

Measuring Roots

Author: Stefano Mancuso
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642220678
Size: 25.32 MB
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Roots represent half of the plant body – and arguably the more interesting half. Despite its obvious importance for the whole plant, until recently our knowledge of the root apparatus was very limited, mostly due to the inadequacy of the techniques available. Recent advances in the visualization and measurement of roots have resulted in significant progress in our understanding of root architecture, growth and behaviour. In this book international experts highlight the most advanced techniques, both lab and field methods, and discuss them in detail. Measuring Roots combines academic and practical aspects of this topic, making it a universal handbook for all researchers and others interested in root-measuring methods.

Routledge Handbook Of Urban Forestry

Author: Francesco Ferrini
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 131723703X
Size: 60.73 MB
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More than half the world's population now lives in cities. Creating sustainable, healthy and aesthetic urban environments is therefore a major policy goal and research agenda. This comprehensive handbook provides a global overview of the state of the art and science of urban forestry. It describes the multiple roles and benefits of urban green areas in general and the specific role of trees, including for issues such as air quality, human well-being and stormwater management. It reviews the various stresses experienced by trees in cities and tolerance mechanisms, as well as cultural techniques for either pre-conditioning or alleviating stress after planting. It sets out sound planning, design, species selection, establishment and management of urban trees. It shows that close interactions with the local urban communities who benefit from trees are key to success. By drawing upon international state-of-art knowledge on arboriculture and urban forestry, the book provides a definitive overview of the field and is an essential reference text for students, researchers and practitioners.

Secondary Xylem Biology

Author: Yoon Soo Kim
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128025298
Size: 30.43 MB
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Secondary Xylem Biology: Origins, Functions, and Applications provides readers with many lenses from which to understand the whole scope and breadth of secondary xylem. The book builds on a basic comprehension of xylem structure and development before delving into other important issues such as fungal and bacterial degradation and biofuel conversion. Chapters are written by recognized experts who have in-depth knowledge of their specific areas of expertise. It is a single information source containing high quality content, information, and knowledge related to the understanding of biology in woody plants and their applications. Offers an in-depth understanding of biology in woody plants Includes topics such as abiotic stresses on secondary xylem formation, fungal degradation of cell walls, and secondary xylem for bioconversion Progresses from basic details of wood structure, to dynamics of wood formation, to degradation

Networks On Networks

Author: Allen G. Hunt
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1681741598
Size: 34.70 MB
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Order from chaos is simultaneously a mantra of physics and a reality in biology. Physicist Norman Packard suggested that life developed and thrives at the edge of chaos. Questions remain, however, as to how much practical knowledge of biology can be traced to existing physical principles, and how much physics has to change in order to address the complexity of biology. Phil Anderson, a physics Nobel laureate, contributed to popularizing a new notion of the end of “reductionism.” In this view, it is necessary to abandon the quest of reducing complex behavior to known physical results, and to identify emergent behaviors and principles. In the present book, however, we have sought physical rules that can underlie the behavior of biota as well as the geochemistry of soil development. We looked for fundamental principles, such as the dominance of water flow paths with the least cumulative resistance, that could maintain their relevance across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, together with the appropriate description of solute transport associated with such flow paths. Thus, ultimately, we address both nutrient and water transport limitations of processes from chemical weathering to vascular plant growth. The physical principles guiding our effort are established in different, but related concepts and fields of research, so that in fact our book applies reductionist techniques guided by analogy. The fact that fundamental traits extend across biotic and abiotic processes, i.e., the same fluid flow rate is relevant to both, but that distinctions in topology of the connected paths lead to dramatic differences in growth rates, helps unite the study of these nominally different disciplines of geochemistry and geobiology within the same framework. It has been our goal in writing this book to share the excitement of learning, and one of the most exciting portions to us has been the ability to bring some order to the question of the extent to which soils can facilitate plant growth, and what limitations on plant sizes, metabolism, occurrence, and correlations can be formulated thereby. While we bring order to the soil constraints on growth , we also generate some uncertainties in the scaling relationships of plant growth and metabolism. Although we have made an first attempt to incorporate edaphic constraints into allometric scaling, this is but an initial foray into the forest.