The Preservation Of Two Infant Temperaments Into Adolescence

Author: Jerome Kagan
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN:
Size: 75.71 MB
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Temperament has been a central element of the on-going effort to describe the distinctiveness of persons at every stage of development. Many researchers have examined the relations of temperament to emotions, behavior, and adjustment generally. Fewer studies have focused primarily on the nature and structure of temperament, however, and even fewer have examined the developmental course of temperament. This Monograph reports a significant exception. The authors undertook theoretically relevant behavioral, biological, and self-report assessments of a sample of 14-to-17 year olds who had been classified into one of four temperamental groups at 4 months of age. Infant temperamental categories were based on observed behavior to a battery of unfamiliar stimuli. The infants classified as high reactive (20 percent of the sample) displayed vigorous motor activity and frequent crying. Those classified as low reactive (40 percent) displayed minimal motor activity and crying. About 25 percent of the infants, called distressed, showed minimal motor activity but cried frequently, and 10 percent, characterized by vigorous motoricity but little crying, were called aroused. Previous evaluations of these children at 14 and 21 months, and 4, 7, and 11 years had revealed that those children initially classified as high reactive were most likely to be avoidant of unfamiliar events at the early ages and emotionally subdued, cautious, and wary of new situations at the later ages. By contrast, initially low-reactive children had been the least avoidant of unfamiliarity in the second year and most emotionally spontaneous and sociable at the later ages. At age 11 years, assessments also had revealed that initially high-reactive children were more likely than the low-reactive participants to display right hemisphere activation in the EEG, a larger evoked potential from the inferior colliculus, larger event related waveforms to discrepant scenes, and greater sympathetic tone in the cardiovascular system. In the follow-up of these individuals reported here, adolescents (14–17 years of age) who had been classified as high reactive in infancy were more likely than initially low reactive participants to display sympathetic tone in the cardiovascular system, to combine a fast latency with a large magnitude of the evoked potential from the inferior colliculus, and to show shallower habituation of the event-related potential to discrepant visual events. Moreover, compared to their low-reactive agemates, initially high reactive adolescents more often reported being subdued in unfamiliar situations, experiencing a dour mood and anxiety over the future, and being religious. An important finding is that behavior and biology were more clearly dissociated in adolescence than at earlier ages. However, infant temperamental category at 4 months remained a powerful predictor of behavior in adolescence, suggesting that the features that characterize the two temperamental biases by initially high- and low-reactive are not completely malleable to the profound effects of brain growth and experience.

Handbook Of Temperament

Author: Marcel Zentner
Publisher: Guilford Publications
ISBN: 1462524990
Size: 72.76 MB
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Timely and authoritative, this unique handbook explores the breadth of current knowledge on temperament, from foundational theory and research to clinical applications. Leaders in the field examine basic temperament traits, assessment methods, and what brain imaging and molecular genetics reveal about temperament's biological underpinnings. The book considers the pivotal role of temperament in parent–child interactions, attachment, peer relationships, and the development of adolescent and adult personality and psychopathology. Innovative psychological and educational interventions that take temperament into account are reviewed. Integrative in scope, the volume features extensive cross-referencing among chapters and a forward-looking summary chapter.

Child And Adolescent Development An Integrated Approach

Author: David F. Bjorklund
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 113316837X
Size: 79.57 MB
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Organized topically to realistically present the three overarching perspectives that guide today's researchers and practitioners of developmental psychology, David Bjorklund and Carlos Hernández Blasi's CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH provides not only a truly ground-breaking integrated approach but also the most practical and up-to-date introduction to this vital subject. The authors emphasize applied issues and consistently show how the major perspectives on human development must be integrated -rather than presented as contrasting and sometimes contradictory ways of looking at development -in order to meaningfully understand infants, children, and adolescents as well as how they develop. High-interest boxes including the Biopsychology of Childhood, Evolution in Action, and Socioculturally Speaking appear in rotation throughout the chapters to add both depth and dimension to the presentation of the text's comprehensive core content and featured perspectives. A rich set of pedagogical resources in the text itself and throughout its dynamic suite of online and print supplements helps to ensure that this text engages, enlightens, and challenges students in unique ways. Take a look and see why pre-publication reviewers and class-testers have been raving about the exciting teaching and learning possibilities this new text offers. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Developmental Psychology Childhood Adolescence

Author: David David Reed Shaffer
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 0495601713
Size: 64.68 MB
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This popular, topically organized, and thoroughly updated child and adolescent development text presents you with the best theories, research, and practical advice that developmentalists have to offer today. Authors David R. Shaffer and Katherine Kipp pro

Child And Adolescent Development In Your Classroom

Author: Christi Crosby Bergin
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1285965604
Size: 72.61 MB
Format: PDF
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Covering development from early childhood through high school in an easy-to-follow format, this book provides future teachers with authentic, research-based strategies and guidelines for their classrooms. The authors apply child development concepts to topics of high interest and relevance to teachers, including classroom discipline, constructivism, social-emotional development, and many others. A strong emphasis on diversity among children is reflected throughout. Case studies and real-world vignettes further bridge the distance between research and the classroom, helping future teachers be better prepared to create an environment that promotes optimal development in children. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

The Long Shadow Of Temperament

Author: Jerome Kagan
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674039261
Size: 47.45 MB
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We have seen these children--the shy and the sociable, the cautious and the daring--and wondered what makes one avoid new experience and another avidly pursue it. At the crux of the issue surrounding the contribution of nature to development is the study that Jerome Kagan and his colleagues have been conducting for more than two decades. In The Long Shadow of Temperament, Kagan and Nancy Snidman summarize the results of this unique inquiry into human temperaments, one of the best-known longitudinal studies in developmental psychology. These results reveal how deeply certain fundamental temperamental biases can be preserved over development. Identifying two extreme temperamental types--inhibited and uninhibited in childhood, and high-reactive and low-reactive in very young babies--Kagan and his colleagues returned to these children as adolescents. Surprisingly, one of the temperaments revealed in infancy predicted a cautious, fearful personality in early childhood and a dour mood in adolescence. The other bias predicted a bold childhood personality and an exuberant, sanguine mood in adolescence. These personalities were matched by different biological properties. In a masterly summary of their wide-ranging exploration, Kagan and Snidman conclude that these two temperaments are the result of inherited biologies probably rooted in the differential excitability of particular brain structures. Though the authors appreciate that temperamental tendencies can be modified by experience, this compelling work--an empirical and conceptual tour-de-force--shows how long the shadow of temperament is cast over psychological development.

Understanding Mother Adolescent Conflict Discussions

Author: Nancy Eisenberg
Publisher: Blackwell Pub
ISBN:
Size: 72.34 MB
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Adolescence is often thought of as a period during which parent–child interactions can be relatively stressed and conflictual. There are individual differences in this regard, however, with only a modest percent of youth experiencing extremely conflictual relationships with their parents. Relatively little empirical research, however, addresses individual differences in the quality of parent–adolescent interactions concerning potentially conflictual issues. The research reported in this monograph examined dispositional and parenting predictors of the quality of parents’ and their adolescent children’s emotional displays and positive and negative verbalizations when dealing with conflictual issues. Of particular interest were patterns of continuity and discontinuity in the factors related to conflicts. A multimethod, multireporter (mother, teacher, and sometimes adolescent reports) longitudinal approach(over 4 years) was used to assess adolescents’ dispositional characteristics (control/regulation, resiliency, and negative emotionality), youths’ externalizing problems, and parenting variables (warmth, positive expressivity, discussion of emotion, positive and negative family expressivity). Parentadolescent conflicts appear to be influenced by both child characteristics and quality of prior and concurrent parenting, and child effects may be more evident than parent effects in this pattern of relations.

Developing Object Concepts In Infancy

Author: David H. Rakison
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN:
Size: 22.91 MB
Format: PDF
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We present a domain-general framework called constrained attentional associative learning to provide a developmental account for how and when infants form concepts for animates and inanimates that encapsulate not only their surface appearance but also their movement characteristics. Six simulations with the same general-purpose architecture implement the features of the theory to model infant behavior in learning about objects’ motion trajectory, their causal role, their onset of motion, and the initial mapping between a label and a moving object. Behavioral experiments with infants tested novel hypotheses generated by the model, showing that verbal labels initially may be associated with specific features rather than overall shape. Implications of the framework and model are discussed in relation to the mechanisms of early learning, the development of the animate–inanimate distinction, and the nature of development in the first years of life.

The Effects Of Early Social Emotional And Relationship Experience On The Development Of Young Orphanage Children

Author: Susan C. Crockenberg
Publisher: Blackwell Pub
ISBN:
Size: 66.33 MB
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This study represents a quasi-experimental test of the role of early social–emotional experience and adult–child relationships in the development of typically developing children and those with disabilities birth–4 years of age living in orphanages in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. Caregivers performed routine duties in a perfunctory, business-like manner with minimal interaction with children, and children had 9–12 caregivers per week and as many as 60–100 different caregivers over the first 2 years of life. Orphanages were non-randomly assigned to one of two intervention or a no-intervention condition. Training staff members to engage in warm, sensitive, responsive, and developmentally appropriate interactions during routine care giving duties and altering the structure of care (e.g., higher caregiver-child ratios, stability of caregivers) were associated with substantial improvements in the development of children. Although training alone was less effective than training combined with structure changes, training alone was more effective than no intervention. These findings provide a rationale for making similar improvements in other institutions and perhaps in foster care and non-residential care environments as well and for balancing skill building with social–emotional-relationship training in early childhood personnel preparation curricula.