The Ontogeny Of Information

Author: Susan Oyama
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822380668
Size: 24.36 MB
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The Ontogeny of Information is a critical intervention into the ongoing and perpetually troubling nature-nurture debates surrounding human development. Originally published in 1985, this was a foundational text in what is now the substantial field of developmental systems theory. In this revised edition Susan Oyama argues compellingly that nature and nurture are not alternative influences on human development but, rather, developmental products and the developmental processes that produce them. Information, says Oyama, is thought to reside in molecules, cells, tissues, and the environment. When something wondrous occurs in the world, we tend to question whether the information guiding the transformation was pre-encoded in the organism or installed through experience or instruction. Oyama looks beyond this either-or question to focus on the history of such developments. She shows that what developmental “information” does depends on what is already in place and what alternatives are available. She terms this process “constructive interactionism,” whereby each combination of genes and environmental influences simultaneously interacts to produce a unique result. Ontogeny, then, is the result of dynamic and complex interactions in multileveled developmental systems. The Ontogeny of Information challenges specialists in the fields of developmental biology, philosophy of biology, psychology, and sociology, and even nonspecialists, to reexamine the existing nature-nurture dichotomy as it relates to the history and formation of organisms.

Evolution S Eye

Author: Susan Oyama
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 9780822324720
Size: 25.81 MB
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DIVCollection of essays by Susan Oyama looking at the implications of developmental systems approach for evolutionary theory, specifically for nature-nurture oppositions, ideas of essential human nature, and the limits of human agency and possibility./div

Cycles Of Contingency

Author: Susan Oyama
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262650632
Size: 75.30 MB
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The nature/nurture debate is not dead. Dichotomous views of development still underlie many fundamental debates in the biological and social sciences. Developmental systems theory (DST) offers a new conceptual framework with which to resolve such debates. DST views ontogeny as contingent cycles of interaction among a varied set of developmental resources, no one of which controls the process. These factors include DNA, cellular and organismic structure, and social and ecological interactions. DST has excited interest from a wide range of researchers, from molecular biologists to anthropologists, because of its ability to integrate evolutionary theory and other disciplines without falling into traditional oppositions.The book provides historical background to DST, recent theoretical findings on the mechanisms of heredity, applications of the DST framework to behavioral development, implications of DST for the philosophy of biology, and critical reactions to DST.

The Principles Of Life

Author: Tibor Ganti
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198507260
Size: 48.31 MB
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This highly readable theory of life and its origins offers a non-technical discussion of a chemical perspective on the fundamental organisation of living systems. Essays on the biological and philosophical significance of Ganti's work of thirty years indicate not only its enduring theoretical significance, but also the continuing relevance and heuristic power of Ganti's insights.

The Dependent Gene

Author: David S. Moore
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 9780805072808
Size: 41.61 MB
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Provides an analysis of the nature vs. nuture debate, arguing for an end to the "either/or" nature of the discussions in favor of a recognition that environmental and genetic factors interact throughout life to form human traits.

Beyond The Brain

Author: Benoit Hardy-Vallée
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443807087
Size: 54.85 MB
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Cognitive science faces a major methodological and conceptual change since the 90's. Whereas the brain was traditionally conceived as being the only seat of intelligence, many researches emphasize the entrenchment of the brain in body, context and culture. In 2006, a conference was held at the Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) and allowed researchers from various fields to interact and discuss such issues. Cognitio 2006 was an occasion for philosophers, cognitive scientists and biologists to present the latest developments in their discipline, and this book aims at providing a general overview of current research on embodied, situated and distributed cognition.

Darwinism And Pragmatism

Author: Lucas McGranahan
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 135197582X
Size: 67.60 MB
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Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection challenges our very sense of belonging in the world. Unlike prior evolutionary theories, Darwinism construes species as mutable historical products of a blind process that serves no inherent purpose. It also represents a distinctly modern kind of fallible science that relies on statistical evidence and is not verifiable by simple laboratory experiments. What are human purpose and knowledge if humanity has no pre-given essence and science itself is our finite and fallible product? According to the Received Image of Darwinism, Darwin’s theory signals the triumph of mechanism and reductionism in all science. On this view, the individual virtually disappears at the intersection of (internal) genes and (external) environment. In contrast, William James creatively employs Darwinian concepts to support his core conviction that both knowledge and reality are in the making, with individuals as active participants. In promoting this Pragmatic Image of Darwinism, McGranahan provides a novel reading of James as a philosopher of self-transformation. Like his contemporary Nietzsche, James is concerned first and foremost with the structure and dynamics of the finite purposive individual. This timely volume is suitable for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers interested in the fields of history of philosophy, history and philosophy of science, history of psychology, American pragmatism and Darwinism.

Approaches To Positive Youth Development

Author: Rainer K Silbereisen
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1446223035
Size: 33.31 MB
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Scientific research and science-guided practice based on the promotion of an individual's strengths constitutes a radical shift in a new and growing area of study within the field of human development. Its trademark term is `positive youth development'. This approach to human development is based on the idea that, in addition to preventing problems, science and practice should promote the development of competencies, skills, and motivation in order to enhance individuals' developmental pathways. Approaches to Positive Youth Development, is based on this concept and brings together authors from across Europe and America who are leaders in their respective fields. The main focus of the book, beyond a clarification of the paradigmatic foundations, concerns the major contexts of adolescents and young adults, namely, neighbourhoods and leisure locales, school and family, and the major themes of healthy psychosocial development, namely, competences and knowledge, prosocial behaviour, transcending problems of delinquency, civic engagement, identity, agency, and spirituality.

Philosophy Of Complex Systems

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080931227
Size: 35.42 MB
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The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of complex nonlinear dynamical systems, especially in recent years. -Comprehensive coverage of all main theories in the philosophy of Complex Systems -Clearly written expositions of fundamental ideas and concepts -Definitive discussions by leading researchers in the field -Summaries of leading-edge research in related fields are also included

The Evolution Of Childhood

Author: Melvin Konner
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674045668
Size: 78.33 MB
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With an eye to the entire range of human evolutionary history, a study of human development examines cross-cultural and universal characteristics of growth from infancy to adolescence.