The Neuromuscular System From Earth To Space Life Science

Author: Dieter Blottner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319122983
Size: 79.89 MB
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The book provides fundamental new insights in the structure and function of the healthy NeuroMuscular system. Recent findings suggest that the musculoskeletal system that supports movement control on Earth is controlled by unique principles of structural, biochemical and molecular characteristics. Mechanical loading by working against normal gravity helps to support principal structures in bone, muscle and associated subcellular scaffold components. Disuse or immobilization of the body in bed rest on Earth or in microgravity in Space result in considerable loss of bone, muscle and force with downregulation of neuromuscular activity resulting in impaired performance control. The goal is to develop exercise prescriptions to maintain postural control in normal life, aging and rehabilitation on Earth as well as for an adequate human performance management in Space.

Cardiovascular System Red Blood Cells And Oxygen Transport In Microgravity

Author: Hanns-Christian Gunga
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319332260
Size: 15.65 MB
Format: PDF
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This book comprehensively describes the physiological changes and consequences that occur in humans during spaceflight. It specifically presents the adaptations of the cardiovascular and the respiratory system. Specific changes occurring after 10, 20 or more days in space are depicted. Furthermore, the book explains various effective countermeasures that are required upon return of the astronauts to Earth. The book is a must-have for all biomedical and clinical researchers in the field of cardiovascular biology and respiration, and a fascinating reading for all interested laymen, who wish to understand a bit more about spaceflight research and technology.

The Immune System In Space Are We Prepared

Author: Alexander Choukèr
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319414666
Size: 66.30 MB
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This book gives insight into the mechanism of the immune system and the influence of the environment on earth. Further, the book explains the changes that occur in our immune system in the absence of gravity and their fundamental consequences. Several limiting factors for human health and performance in microgravity have been clearly identified as an unacceptable risk for long-term and interplanetary flights. Serious concerns arose whether spaceflight-associated immune system dysfunction ultimately precludes the expansion of human presence beyond Earth's orbit. The immune system has undergone many evolutionary steps to cope with a new and changing environment, but `space` has not been evolutionary experienced before. Through endocrine orchestration of cell functions, cell to cell communications and intracellular mechanisms the human body and his immune system have an enormous capacity to adapt and react to altered environmental conditions. Thus, the special sensitivity to altered gravity renders the immune system an ideal biological model system to understand if and how gravity on Earth is required for the normal function of cells and cellular networks. It is one of the most fundamental challenges to find out, if our organism and our cellular machinery are able to live and to adequately perform without the gravity field of Earth. The book is written for immunologists and researchers in human physiology under normal and stressfull conditions.

Sensory Motor And Behavioral Research In Space

Author: Reinhard Hilbig
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319682016
Size: 48.67 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This volume of the series SpringerBriefs in Space Life Sciences describes findings from space and accompanying ground research related to spatial orientation, posture and locomotion, cognition and psychomotor function. The results are not only of importance to health and performance of astronauts during their space mission, but also impact people on Earth, especially in the ageing societies of the Western countries. The space environment produces mismatches between sensory inputs from canal and otolith afferents which are difficult to study in humans, and are therefore studied in the fish model. Brain and vestibular organ of fish are analyzed under altered gravitational conditions; particularly weightlessness and structural failures as well as malfunctions in different inner ear components are investigated and discussed. The book is aiming at students, engineers and scientists in space and aging research, as well as psychology, neurosciences and sensory motor research.

Examination Questions And Answers In Basic Anatomy And Physiology

Author: Martin Caon
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319755994
Size: 45.26 MB
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This second edition provides 2400 multiple choice questions on human anatomy and physiology, and some physical science, separated into 40 categories. The answer to each question is accompanied by an explanation. Each category has an introduction to set the scene for the questions to come. However, not all possible information is provided within these Introductions, so an Anatomy and Physiology textbook is an indispensable aid to understanding the answers. The questions have been used in end-of-semester examinations for undergraduate anatomy and physiology courses and as such reflect the focus of these particular courses and are pitched at this level to challenge students that are beginning their training in anatomy and physiology. The question and answer combinations are intended for use by teachers, to select questions for their next examinations, and by students, when studying for an upcoming test. Students enrolled in the courses for which these questions were written include nursing, midwifery, paramedic, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, nutrition and dietetics, health sciences, exercise science, and students taking an anatomy and physiology course as an elective.

Ticks Of Europe And North Africa

Author: Agustín Estrada-Peña
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319637606
Size: 42.55 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book includes descriptive keys for identifying every stage of all the species of ticks reported in Europe and northern Africa. It includes descriptive texts on the ecology and prominent features of each species, together with ink illustrations and distribution maps of more than 60 species of hard and soft ticks. The text for each species was prepared by specialists, the illustrations were made especially for this book and the maps were compiled on the basis of more than 40 years of records. This book is the first to offer keys for more than 60 species of ticks (both immature and adult) in the target territory. It also includes supplementary information with bibliographical details for each species. This book is based upon work from COST Action TD1303, supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)

Medical Parasitology

Author: Rohela Mahmud
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319687956
Size: 73.54 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This textbook will provide a systematic comprehension of the various medically important human parasites; their distribution, habitat, morphology and life cycle, pathogenesis and clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. The main emphasis is on the protozoan and helminthic diseases, also medical entomology covering vectors relevant to these diseases. The book aims to promote an easy yet comprehensive way of learning parasitology. It attempts to break down the complexity of medical parasitology into parts that are easy to understand yet integrating the essential information of parasitic infections. The integration of knowledge of parasites will be achieved through student friendly illustrations, inclusion of a collection of recent case reports, examples of test questions and scenarios, and the images of human parasites. Essentially, it provides a “one-stop learning package” for medical parasitology.

Novel Insights In The Neurochemistry And Function Of Pulmonary Sensory Receptors

Author: Inge Brouns
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642227721
Size: 21.81 MB
Format: PDF
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With the advances of immunohistochemistry in combination with confocal microscopy, airway sensory receptor end-organs can now be examined and evaluated objectively. Based on their ‘neurochemical coding’, morphology, location and origin, three sensory receptor end organs are currently morphologically well-characterised: smooth muscle-associated airway receptors (SMARs), neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) and visceral pleura receptors (VPRs). The present information on the functional morphological and neurochemical characteristics of these sensory receptors, leads to important conclusions about their (possible) function.

Pharmaceutical Suspensions

Author: Alok K. Kulshreshtha
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441910875
Size: 49.66 MB
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The suspension dosage form has long been used for poorly soluble active ingre- ents for various therapeutic indications. Development of stable suspensions over the shelf life of the drug product continues to be a challenge on many fronts. A good understanding of the fundamentals of disperse systems is essential in the development of a suitable pharmaceutical suspension. The development of a s- pension dosage form follows a very complicated path. The selection of the proper excipients (surfactants, viscosity imparting agents etc.) is important. The particle size distribution in the finished drug product dosage form is a critical parameter that significantly impacts the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of the product. Appropriate analytical methodologies and instruments (chromatographs, visco- ters, particle size analyzers, etc.) must be utilized to properly characterize the s- pension formulation. The development process continues with a successful scale-up of the manufacturing process. Regulatory agencies around the world require cli- cal trials to establish the safety and efficacy of the drug product. All of this devel- ment work should culminate into a regulatory filing in accordance with the regulatory guidelines. Pharmaceutical Suspensions, From Formulation Development to Manufacturing, in its organization, follows the development approach used widely in the pharmaceutical industry. The primary focus of this book is on the classical disperse system – poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients s- pended in a suitable vehicle.

Self Reported Population Health An International Perspective Based On Eq 5d

Author: Agota Szende
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400775962
Size: 33.60 MB
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The EQ-5D instrument, as a standardized, cross-culturally validated measure of self-assessed health has a hugely important role in understanding population health within and across countries. Over the past two decades a wealth of international population health survey data have been accumulated by the EuroQol Group from research conducted in many countries across four continents. One of the success factors of the EQ-5D instruments has been the easy availability of national or international sets of EQ-5D data, as well as clear explanations and guidance for users. There is an unmet need to produce a comprehensive book that captures up-to-date and expanded information of EQ-5D self-reported health and index values. EQ-5D population norms and cross-country analyses are provided from representative national surveys of 20 countries and additional regional surveys. This book will be a must for those who believe that how people report and value health is very important.