The International Law Of Occupation

Author: Eyal Benvenisti
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199588899
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Originally published: Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1993.

The International Law Of Occupation

Author: Eyal Benvenisti
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191639575
Size: 70.12 MB
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The law of occupation imposes two types of obligations on an army that seizes control of enemy land during armed conflict: obligations to respect and protect the inhabitants and their rights, and an obligation to respect the sovereign rights of the ousted government. In theory, the occupant is expected to establish an effective and impartial administration, to carefully balance its own interests against those of the inhabitants and their government, and to negotiate the occupation's early termination in a peace treaty. Although these expectations have been proven to be too high for most occupants, they nevertheless serve as yardsticks that measure the level of compliance of the occupants with international law. This thoroughly revised edition of the 1993 book traces the evolution of the law of occupation from its inception during the 18th century until today. It offers an assessment of the law by focusing on state practice of the various occupants and reactions thereto, and on the governing legal texts and judicial decisions. The underlying thought that informs and structures the book suggests that this body of laws has been shaped by changing conceptions about war and sovereignty, by the growing attention to human rights and the right to self-determination, as well as by changes in the balance of power among states. Because the law of occupation indirectly protects the sovereign, occupation law can be seen as the mirror-image of the law on sovereignty. Shifting perceptions on sovereign authority are therefore bound to be reflected also in the law of occupation, and vice-versa.

The International Law Of Occupation

Author: Eyal Benvenisti
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691121307
Size: 11.27 MB
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Codified in the 1899 and 1907 Hague Peace Conferences and later modified by the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention, the traditional international law of occupation has been challenged by advocates of human rights and self- determination and tested by the numerous occupations of the last two decades--among them Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza, Turkish occupation of Northern Cyprus, the Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia, U.S. operations in Grenada and Panama, and occupations during the Persian Gulf crisis. To address the new issues that have emerged, Eyal Benvenisti formulates a contemporary theory of the law of occupation and establishes guidelines for the lawful management of occupation. In his new preface the author addresses issues arising from the U.S. occupation of Iraq. Benvenisti delineates the international responsibilities and obligations of governments that gain control over foreign territories through the use of force and examines the conduct of various occupying powers of the twentieth century, beginning with the German occupation of Belgium during World War I. He analyzes the actions of these occupants by contrasting them with the reactions of ousted governments, of peoples under occupation, and of other states and of supranational organizations. Additionally, he evaluates the legality of various measures taken by occupants, with the result that the nature of occupation can now for the first time be systematically assessed.

The Writing On The Wall

Author: Aeyal Gross
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108158374
Size: 30.26 MB
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As Israel's control of the Occupied Palestinian Territory nears its fiftieth anniversary, The Writing on the Wall offers a critical perspective on the international law of occupation. Advocating a normative and functional approach to occupation and to the question of when it exists, it analyzes the application of humanitarian and human rights law, pointing to the risk of using the law of occupation in its current version to legitimize new variations of conquest and colonialism. The book points to the need for reconsidering the law of occupation in light of changing forms of control, such as those evident in Gaza. Although the Israeli occupation is a main focal point, the book broadens its compass to look at other cases, such as Iraq, Northern Cyprus, and Western Sahara, highlighting the role that international law plays in all of these cases.

The International Law Of Belligerent Occupation

Author: Yoram Dinstein
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521896371
Size: 78.17 MB
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The customary law of belligerent occupation goes back to the Hague and Geneva Conventions. Recent instances of such occupation include Iraq, the former Yugoslavia, the Congo and Eritrea. But the paradigmatic illustration is the Israeli occupation, lasting for over 40 years. There is now case law of the International Court of Justice and other judicial bodies, both international and domestic. There are Security Council resolutions and a vast literature. Still, numerous controversial points remain. How is belligerent occupation defined? How is it started and when is it terminated? What is the interaction with human rights law? Who is protected under belligerent occupation, and what is the scope of the protection? Conversely, what measures can an occupying power lawfully resort to when encountering forcible resistance from inhabitants of the occupied territory? This book examines the legislative, judicial and executive rights of the occupying power and its obligations to the civilian population.

The Transformation Of Occupied Territory In International Law

Author: Andrea Carcano
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004227881
Size: 68.40 MB
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Building on a broad historical foundation, this study offers a comprehensive treatment of the international law issues that have arisen in connection with, and as a result of, the ‘transformative’ occupation of Iraq and of their significance for the development of international law.

The Law Of Occupation

Author: Yutaka Arai
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004162461
Size: 79.21 MB
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This monograph analyses the historical evolution of the laws of occupation as a special branch of international humanitarian law (IHL), focusing on the extent to which this body of law has been transformed by its interaction with the development of international human rights law. It argues that a large part of the laws of occupation has proved to be malleable while being able to accommodate changing demands of civilians and any other persons affected by occupation in modern context. Its examinations have drawn much on archival research into the drafting documents of the instruments of IHL, including the aborted Brussels Declaration 1874, the 1899/1907 Hague Regulations, the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocol I. After assessing the complementary relationship between international human rights law and the laws of occupation, the book examines how to provide a coherent explanation for an emerging framework on the rights of individual persons affected by occupation. It engages in a theoretical appraisal of the role of customary IHL and the Martens clause in building up such a normative framework.

Humanitarian Occupation

Author: Gregory H . Fox
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139469738
Size: 80.84 MB
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This book analyzes a new phenomenon in international law: international organizations assuming the powers of a national government in order to reform political institutions. After reviewing the history of internationalized territories, this book asks two questions about these 'humanitarian occupations'. First, why did they occur? The book argues that the missions were part of a larger trend in international law to maintain existing states and their populations. The only way this could occur in these territories, which had all seen violent internal conflict, was for international administrators to take charge. Second, what is the legal justification for the missions? The book examines each of the existing justifications and finds them wanting. A new foundation is needed, one that takes account of the missions' authorisation by the UN Security Council and their pursuit of goals widely supported in the international community.

Beyond Occupation

Author: Virginia Tilley
Publisher: Pluto Press
ISBN: 9780745332352
Size: 55.82 MB
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Beyond Occupation looks at three contentious terms that regularly arise in contemporary arguments about Israel's practices towards Palestinians in the occupied territories – occupation, colonialism and apartheid – and considers whether their meanings in international law truly apply to Israel's policies. This analysis is timely and urgent – colonialism and apartheid are serious breaches of human rights law and apartheid is a crime against humanity under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. The contributors present conclusive evidence that Israel’s administration of the Palestinian territories is consistent with colonialism and apartheid, as these regimes are defined in human rights law. Their analysis further shows that these practices are deliberate Israeli state policies, imposed on the Palestinian civilian population under military occupation. These findings raise serious implications for the legality and legitimacy of Israel's continuing occupation of the Palestinian territories and the responsibility of the entire international community to challenge practices considered contrary to fundamental values of the international legal order.