The Global Decline Of The Mandatory Death Penalty

Author: Andrew Novak
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317030273
Size: 23.62 MB
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Historically, at English common law, the death penalty was mandatory for the crime of murder and other violent felonies. Over the last three decades, however, many former British colonies have reformed their capital punishment regimes to permit judicial sentencing discretion, including consideration of mitigating factors. Applying a comparative analysis to the law of capital punishment, Novak examines the constitutional jurisprudence and resulting legislative reform in the Caribbean, Sub-Saharan Africa, and South and Southeast Asia, focusing on the rapid retreat of the mandatory death penalty in the Commonwealth over the last thirty years. The coordinated mandatory death penalty challenges - which have had the consequence of greatly reducing the world’s death row population - represent a case study of how a small group of lawyers can sponsor human rights litigation that incorporates international human rights law into domestic constitutional jurisprudence, ultimately harmonizing criminal justice regimes across borders. This book is essential reading for anyone interested in the study and development of human rights and capital punishment, as well as those exploring the contours of comparative criminal justice.

Comparative Executive Clemency

Author: Andrew Novak
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131760265X
Size: 42.91 MB
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Virtually every constitutional order in the common law world contains a provision for executive clemency or pardon in criminal cases. This facility for legal mercy is not limited to a single place in modern legal systems, but is instead realized through various practices such as a law enforcement officer’s decision to arrest, a prosecutor’s decision to prosecute, and a judge’s decision to convict and sentence. Doubts about legal mercy in any form as unfair, unguided, or arbitrary are as ubiquitous as the exercise of mercy itself. This book presents a comparative analysis of the clemency and pardon power in the common law world. Andrew Novak compares the modern development, organization, and practice of constitutional and statutory schemes of clemency and pardon in the United Kingdom, United States, and Commonwealth jurisdictions. He asks whether the bureaucratization of the clemency power is in line with global trends, and explores how innovations in legislative involvement, judicial review, and executive consultation have made the mercy and pardon procedure more transparent. The book concludes with a discussion on the future of the clemency and pardon power given the decline of the death penalty in the Commonwealth and the rise of the modern institution of parole. As a work concerned with the practice of mercy in the common law world, this book will be of great interest to researchers and students of international and comparative criminal justice and international human rights law.

The Death Penalty In Africa Foundations And Future Prospects

Author: A. Novak
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137438770
Size: 56.74 MB
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In recent years the death penalty has sharply declined across Africa, but this trend belies actual public opinion and the retributivist sentiments held by political elites. This study explains capital punishment in Africa in terms of culturally specific notions of life and death as well as the colonial-era imposition of criminal and penal policy.

The International Criminal Court

Author: Andrew Novak
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319158325
Size: 32.35 MB
Format: PDF
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This book is about the International Criminal Court (ICC), a new and highly distinctive criminal justice institution with the ability to prosecute the highest-level government officials, including heads of state, even in countries that have not accepted its jurisdiction. The book explores the historical development of international criminal law and the formal legal structure created by the Rome Statute, against the background of the Court’s search for objectivity in a political global environment. The book reviews the operations of the Court in practice and the Court’s position in the power politics of the international system. It discusses and clarifies all stages of an international criminal proceeding from the opening of the investigation to sentencing, reparations, and final appeals in the context of its restorative justice mission. Making appropriate comparisons and contrasts between the international criminal justice system and domestic and national systems, the book fills a gap in international criminal justice study.

Legal Aspects Of Hiv Aids

Author:
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821371061
Size: 22.17 MB
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This is an invaluable resource for lawyers, policy makers, and other practitioners with an interest in countries' responses to HIV/AIDS. Legal Aspects of HIV/AIDS: A Guide for Policy and Law Reform covers 65 wide-ranging topics in a concise, accessible format, explaining how laws and regulations can either underpin or undermine public health programs and responsible personal behavior. For each topic, the Guide summarizes the key legal or policy issues, provides relevant "practice examples" (citing actual laws and regulations), and offers a selective list of references that may be consulted for more information. Laws relating to many areas of our lives - from intimate physical conduct to international travel - can contribute to stigma, discrimination, and exclusion or, contrariwise, can help remedy these inequities. In order to create a supportive legal framework for responding to HIV/AIDS, it is important that governments effectively address gaps and other problematic aspects in their legislation and regulatory systems. This book, written by a team of leading legal experts, helps them do so.

Moving Away From The Death Penalty

Author: Ivan Šimonović
Publisher: UN
ISBN: 9789211542158
Size: 18.53 MB
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Capital punishment is irrevocable. It prohibits the correction of mistakes by the justice system and leaves no room for human error, with the gravest of consequences. There is no evidence of a deterrent effect of the death penalty. Those sacrificed on the altar of retributive justice are almost always the most vulnerable. This book covers a wide range of topics, from the discriminatory application of the death penalty, wrongful convictions, proven lack of deterrence effect, to legality of the capital punishment under international law and the morality of taking of human life.

Death Penalty A Cruel And Inhuman Punishment

Author: Luis Arroyo Zapatero
Publisher: Ediciones de la Universidad de Castilla La Mancha
ISBN: 8490441138
Size: 31.25 MB
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Death penalty: A cruel and inhuman punishment is an academic contribution by Academics for abolition aimed at fostering the debate launched by the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution 62/149 on 18 December 2007, calling for a worldwide moratorium on executions by 2015, and continued by the upcoming review process of the UN’s Millennium Development Goals (MDG). It is mainly a compilation of papers written by the speakers at the Seminar “Against cruel and inhuman punishment and death penalty”, which took place at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, in Madrid, on 9 June 2013, on the eve of the 5th World Congress against the death penalty. The book deals with current issues of the process towards abolition as the lack of evidence about the deterrence effect of death penalty and its consideration as a cruel and inhuman punishment. Together with the editors, the contribution includes studies, among others, of H.J. Albrecht, Gabrio Forti, Roger Hood, Salim Himnat and Sergio García Ramírez. The Academic International Network against the Death Penalty (REPECAP) dedicates this book to the International Commission against the Death Penalty (ICDP) chaired by Federico Mayor Zaragoza.

Who Resource Book On Mental Health Human Rights And Legislation

Author: Melvyn Freeman
Publisher: World Health Organization
ISBN: 9789241562829
Size: 63.47 MB
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This publication highlights key issues and principles to be considered in the drafting, adoption and implementation of mental health legislation and best practice in mental health services. It contains examples of diverse experiences and practices, as well as extracts of laws and other legal documents from a range of different countries, and a checklist of key policy components. Three main elements of effective mental health legislation are identified, relating to context, content and process.

Unconstitutional Constitutional Amendments

Author: Yaniv Roznai
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198768796
Size: 76.76 MB
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Can constitutional amendments be unconstitutional? The problem of 'unconstitutional constitutional amendments' has become one of the most widely debated issues in comparative constitutional theory, constitutional design, and constitutional adjudication. This book describes and analyses the increasing tendency in global constitutionalism substantively to limit formal changes to constitutions. The challenges of constitutional unamendability to constitutional theory become even more complex when constitutional courts enforce such limitations through substantive judicial review of amendments, often resulting in the declaration that these constitutional amendments are 'unconstitutional'. Combining historical comparisons, constitutional theory, and a wide comparative study, Yaniv Roznai sets out to explain what the nature of amendment power is, what its limitations are, and what the role of constitutional courts is and should be when enforcing limitations on constitutional amendments.

African Challenge To Global Death

Author: Andrew Novak
Publisher: Intersentia
ISBN: 9781780682945
Size: 55.20 MB
Format: PDF
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Although the influence and opinions of political elites, civil society, and the general public vary widely, the death penalty is universally in decline throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Today, the death penalty is a site of accommodation and resistance to international human rights norms between African governments and the Global North. As in debates over membership in the International Criminal Court and legal protections for sexual minorities, some leaders resist death penalty abolition as "imposed" by the Global North, though the modern death penalty in Africa is a product of European colonialism. However, Sub-Saharan Africa is not a passive subject of global death penalty abolition driven by Europe. Courts around the continent have made important contributions to global death penalty jurisprudence, and members of civil society have engaged in novel and successful strategies against the death penalty. In addition, precolonial notions of punishment and criminal responsibility in Africa have influenced debates over the death penalty, including whether to provide compensation to victims of crime. This book explores the African contribution to the global death penalty debate and lessons for the international death penalty abolition movement. [Subject: ?African Law, Human Rights Law, Criminal Law, Penology