The Earliest Instrument

Author: Lana Neal
ISBN: 9781576472217
Size: 10.55 MB
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Flutes in upper paleolithic culture : an introduction -- Interpretation and classification of artifacts -- Chronological and geographical distribution of upper paleolithic flutes -- Engravings on the artifacts -- Archeological contexts -- Upper paleolithic art -- Comparative ethnography -- Birds and flutes in myth and folktale -- Birds, flutes, and divinities -- The flute in mythology -- The flute in folktales -- Epilogue

The Earliest Instrument

Author: Lana Carol Neal
Size: 35.85 MB
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The present study examines the earliest known musical instruments, Upper Paleolithic flutes. Flutes dating to the Upper Paleolithic period are the oldest musical instruments that have survived in the archeological record. These have been discovered at archeological sites in Europe dating from approximately 40,000 to 15,000 years ago. Although humans were most likely creating music prior to this time, the people who entered Europe approximately 40,000 years ago began to create musical instruments that have survived to the present day. This study investigates the significance and function of these instruments in Upper Paleolithic culture. Analysis of the artifacts is followed by discussions of archeological contexts, Upper Paleolithic art, ethnographic comparison, and the flute in mythology. Such diverse sources provide multiple layers of evidence regarding the role of the flute in Upper Paleolithic culture. The phallic shape of the instrument and the fact that it is played with the breath, also a symbol of life, connect the flute with the fertility of humans, plants, and animals, the cycle of life and death, and rebirth after death. There is evidence that the flute was intrinsically linked to these themes even in the Upper Paleolithic period, in which the flute was of vital significance, as it was magically imbued with the power to bestow life.

A Theory Of Virtual Agency For Western Art Music

Author: Robert S. Hatten
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 0253038014
Size: 13.35 MB
Format: PDF
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In his third volume on musical expressive meaning, Robert S. Hatten examines virtual agency in music from the perspectives of movement, gesture, embodiment, topics, tropes, emotion, narrativity, and performance. Distinguished from the actual agency of composers and performers, whose intentional actions either create music as notated or manifest music as significant sound, virtual agency is inferred from the implied actions of those sounds, as they move and reveal tendencies within music-stylistic contexts. From our most basic attributions of sources for perceived energies in music, to the highest realm of our engagement with musical subjectivity, Hatten explains how virtual agents arose as distinct from actual ones, how unspecified actants can take on characteristics of (virtual) human agents, and how virtual agents assume various actorial roles. Along the way, Hatten demonstrates some of the musical means by which composers and performers from different historical eras have staged and projected various levels of virtual agency, engaging listeners imaginatively and interactively within the expressive realms of their virtual and fictional musical worlds.

History Of Humanity From The Third Millennium To The Seventh Century B C

Author: Sigfried J. de Laet
Publisher: UNESCO
ISBN: 9789231028113
Size: 69.74 MB
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The second volume covers the first two and a half thousand years of recorded history, from the start of the Bronze Age 5,000 years ago to the beginnings of the Iron Age. Written by a team of over sixty specialists, this volume includes a comprehensive bibliography and a detailed index.

The Living Goddesses

Author: Marija Gimbutas
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520229150
Size: 60.88 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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"The quintessence of decades of research. . . . It excellently illustrates the various manifestations of the Goddess in the Minoan world and in ancient Greece, among the Etruscans and the Basques, in Celtic, Germanic, and Baltic religion. . . . For sure, the ideas of Marija Gimbutas about the 'Old European' civilization are controversial, but they are built on strong arguments and valid bases, which make it indispensable for her dissident colleagues to take heed of her writings."--Edgar Polomé, Editor of the Journal of Indo-European Studies "The overall view of 'Old Europe' Marija Gimbutas presents is not only readable but spellbinding. . . . Archaeological findings, folklore, and historical texts, including images and texts from ancient Greece and the ancient Near East, are drawn on, and together they produce a coherent, seamless imagery."--Kees Bolle, University of California, Los Angeles

Supernatural As Natural

Author: Michael Winkelman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317343735
Size: 69.40 MB
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This book provides a general introduction to the biological and evolutionary bases of religion and is suitable for introductory level courses in the anthropology and psychology of religion and comparative religion. Why did human ancestors everywhere adopt religious beliefs and customs? The presence and persistence of many religious features across the globe and time suggests that it is natural for humans to believe in the supernatural. In this new text, the authors explore both the biological and cultural dimensions of religion and the evolutionary origins of religious features.