The Black Earth

Author: Igori Arcadie Krupenikov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400701595
Size: 64.67 MB
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Soil is the Earth’s living skin. It provides anchorage for roots, holds water long enough for plants to make use of it and the nutrients that sustain life – otherwise the Earth would be as barren as Mars. It is home to myriad micro-organisms and armies of microscopic animals as well as the familiar earthworm that accomplish biochemical transformations from fixing atmospheric nitrogen to recycling wastes; it receives and process all fresh water, provides the foundations for our built environment; and comprises the biggest global carbon store that we know how to manage. This book is about the best soil in the world - the black earth or chernozem: how it is being degraded by farming and how it may be farmed sustainably. Industrialisation of farming has laid bare contradictions between the unforgiving laws of ecology and economics. Soil organic matter is the fuel that powers soil systems and the cement that holds the soil together – and in place – but agriculture is burning it up faster than it is being formed: even the chernozem cannot long survive this treatment. Here is the evidence for this trend and, based on long-term field experiments, ecological principles for sustainable agriculture that can reverse the trend and, at the same time, feed the world. Unlike other volumes in the series, this is not an edited collection of scientific papers. The authors have chosen the classical monograph to be near to the reader from beginning to end - to convey their anxiety about the state of the land and their optimism about the possibility of retrieving the situation by changing the social and political approach to the land so as to provide the necessary incentives for sustainable land use and management.

Enhancing Soil Health To Mitigate Soil Degradation

Author: Douglas L. Karlen
Publisher: MDPI
ISBN: 3038423580
Size: 77.40 MB
Format: PDF
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Enhancing Soil Health to Mitigate Soil Degradation" that was published in Sustainability

Environmental Issues Surrounding Human Overpopulation

Author: Singh, Rajeev Pratap
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1522516840
Size: 18.27 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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There are many factors to be considered when examining the current state of environmental problems in the modern world. By addressing these causes, the preservation of ecosystems and environmental resources can be maintained. Environmental Issues Surrounding Human Overpopulation is an authoritative reference source for the latest scholarly research on the depletion of natural resources due to overpopulation and presents insights on how these environmental threats can be addressed. Highlighting technological, economic, and social perspectives, this book is ideally designed for policymakers, researchers, academics, students, and practitioners interested in better understanding the current state of the global environment.

Sustainable Agricultural Development

Author: Mohamed Behnassi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400705197
Size: 12.76 MB
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Due to many challenges (i.e. climate change, energy, water and land shortage, high demands on food, land grabbing, etc.), agriculture production potential is expected to be seriously affected; thus, increasing food insecurity and hunger in many already affected regions (especially in Africa). In this context, sustainable agriculture is highly recommended as an eco-system approach where soil, water, plants, environment and living organisms live in harmony. Innovative technologies and research should be developed to ensure sustainable agriculture and productivity using modern irrigation systems, improved varieties, improved soil quality, etc. In the meantime, the preservation of natural environment should be based on resource conservation technologies and best management practices. Sustainable Agricultural Development, not only raises the serious ethical and social issues underlying these huge environmental problems, but also aims at presenting successful experiences from all over the world in relation with sustainable farming, sustainable management of water and land resources, and innovative processes in livestock production. It also aims at providing inputs to decision making processes and encouraging the transfer of relevant know-how, technologies and expertise to different countries where similar agro-climatic conditions may exist; thus saving precious resources and promoting sustainable agricultural development as a relevant approach to tackle the food security challenge. Finally, this book focuses on the paradigmatic and policy dimensions and call for an innovative approach by analyzing the key themes in a complex and interrelated manner.

Developments In Soil Classification Land Use Planning And Policy Implications

Author: Shabbir A. Shahid
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400753322
Size: 10.77 MB
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As the world’s population continues to expand, maintaining and indeed increasing agricultural productivity is more important than ever, though it is also more difficult than ever in the face of changing weather patterns that in some cases are leading to aridity and desertification. The absence of scientific soil inventories, especially in arid areas, leads to mistaken decisions about soil use that, in the end, reduce a region’s capacity to feed its population, or to guarantee a clean water supply. Greater efficiency in soil use is possible when these resources are properly classified using international standards. Focusing on arid regions, this volume details soil classification from many countries. It is only once this information is properly assimilated by policymakers it becomes a foundation for informed decisions in land use planning for rational and sustainable uses.

The Soils Of Italy

Author: Edoardo A.C. Costantini
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400756429
Size: 42.80 MB
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The Soils of Italy is the first comprehensive book on Italian pedology in seventy years. Taking advantage of the authors’ large experience and of the most up-to-date information and technology, this book treats the main soil types of Italy, their diffusion, their functions, ecological use, and the threats to which they are subjected during centuries of intensive management. It also deals with future scenarios of the relationships between soil science and other disciplines, such as urban development, medicine, economics, sociology, and archaeology. The description of the soils is accompanied by a complete set of data, pictures and maps, including benchmark profiles. Factors of soil formation are also treated, making use of new, unpublished data and elaborations. The book also includes a history of pedological research in Italy, spanning over a century.

Soils And Human Health

Author: Eric C. Brevik
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439844542
Size: 12.71 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Despite the connections between soils and human health, there has not been a great amount of attention focused on this area when compared to many other fields of scientific and medical study. Soils and Human Health brings together authors from diverse fields with an interest in soils and human health, including soil science, geology, geography, biology, and anthropology to investigate this issue from a number of perspectives. The book includes a soil science primer chapter for readers from other fields, and discusses the ways the soil science community can contribute to improving our understanding of soils and human health. Features Discusses ways the soil science community can contribute to the improvement of soil health Approaches human health from a soils-focused perspective, covering the influence of soil conservation and contact with soil on human health Illustrates topics via case studies including arsenic in groundwater in Bangladesh; the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam; heavy metal contamination in Shipham, United Kingdom and Omaha, Nebraska, USA; and electronic waste recycling in China. In a scientific world where the trend has often been ever-increasing specialization and increasingly difficult communication between fields and subfields, the interdisciplinary nature of soils and human health studies presents a significant challenge going forward. Fields with an interest in soils and human health need to have increased cross-disciplinary communication and cooperation. This book is a step in the direction of accessibility and innovation, elucidating the state of knowledge in the meeting of soil and health sciences, and identifying places where more work is needed.

Climate Change And Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration In Central Asia

Author: Rattan Lal
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203932692
Size: 76.84 MB
Format: PDF
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This book brings together current knowledge of terrestrial C sequestration in Central Asia. The themes treated include: biophysical environments, water resources, sustainable agriculture, soil degradation, the effects of irrigation schemes on secondary salinization, soil management and its relationship to carbon dynamics; the relationship between forest management and carbon dynamics, economic analyses of land use practices, important methodological issues arising from the use of GIS, remote sensing, carbon budgeting and scaling, and a review of the knowledge gaps in carbon and climate change. The book is a reference source for soil, water, vegetation, climate, land use and management in the region. The book will be of interest to a wide variety of environmental scientists, economists and those interested in policy issues for the sustainable management of natural resources.

Elsevier S Dictionary Of Geography

Author: Vladimir Kotlyakov
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080488783
Size: 21.69 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Geography is a system of highly developed sciences about the environment. Geographical science embracing the study of the Earth's physical phenomena, people and their economic activities has always been in need of an extensive terminology. Geographical terms are related to the terms of natural sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, geology, etc.) and humanities (history, economics, sociology, etc.) since geography is based on these fundamental subjects. Geography includes a number of disciplines and subdivisions which appeared along with the development of the science In spite of being very different geographical disciplines have some common tools of investigation which is maps, comparative method of exploration, remote sensing, geoinformation systems. Today very well developed terminologies of all the specialist fields of geography and related subjects exist in the main world languages. However, they are not always well-correlated. Nowadays geographical terminology requires unification and international correlation more than ever before. Hence the idea of compiling a multilingual polydisciplinary dictionary. The Dictionary consists of the basic table of terms arranged according to the order of the English alphabet with each term numbered. Each entry consists of the term in English and its equivalents in Russian, French, German, Spanish. Short definitions of terms are given in English and in Russian. The terms are supplied with the necessary grammar labels, such as gender of nouns, plural number, etc. The Dictionary combines two functions: that of a defining dictionary and that of a bilingual dictionary. These two functions are basically contradictory because usually the defining dictionary is aimed at giving one meaning of the word which is the main and essential one, while the bilingual dictionary tries to give different equivalents of a given word in the other language in order to supply the user with maximum possible translations, differing in the shades of meanings, thus giving him the possibility to choose the appropriate word. But in our Dictionary we intentionally decided to combine the two functions – defining and multilingual, because a short definition of the term and equivalents in other languages help to achieve our main aim which consists in showing the basic geographical terminology and harmonizing it in several languages. Having this into consideration we deliberately mixed two types of dictionaries in one. Organized alphabetically via English Provides short definition of geographical terms in English and Russian Includes multilingual translation of terms from English to Russian, French, German, Spanish