Author: Samer N. Abboud
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0745698018
Size: 69.20 MB
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Syria was once one of the Middle East?s most stable states. Today it is a country on its knees. Almost 200,000 people are estimated to have died in its bloody internal conflict and, as the violence intensifies, Syria?s future looks bleak. In this timely book, Samer Abboud provides an in-depth analysis of Syria?s descent into civil war. He unravels the complex and multi-layered causes of the current political and military stalemate - from rebel fragmentation to the differing roles of international actors, and the rise of competing centers of power throughout the country. Rebel in-fighting and the lack of a centralizing authority, he contends, have exacerbated Syria?s fragmentation and fragility. This, in turn, has aided the survival of the Assad regime, contributed to the upsurge of sectarianism, and led to a major humanitarian crisis as nine million Syrians have been forced to flee their homes. A resolution to the Syrian conflict seems unlikely in the short-term as the major actors remains committed to a military solution. As this situation persists, the continued fighting is reshaping Syria?s borders and will have repercussions on the wider Middle East for decades to come.

Business Networks In Syria

Author: Bassam S. A. Haddad
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804778418
Size: 67.38 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Collusion between business communities and the state can lead to a measure of security for those in power, but this kind of interaction often limits new development. In Syria, state-business involvement through informal networks has contributed to an erratic economy. With unique access to private businessmen and select state officials during a critical period of transition, this book examines Syria's political economy from 1970 to 2005 to explain the nation's pattern of state intervention and prolonged economic stagnation. As state income from oil sales and aid declined, collusion was a bid for political security by an embattled regime. To achieve a modicum of economic growth, the Syrian regime would develop ties with select members of the business community, reserving the right to reverse their inclusion in the future. Haddad ultimately reveals that this practice paved the way for forms of economic agency that maintained the security of the regime but diminished the development potential of the state and the private sector.

Asad S Legacy

Author: Eyal Ziser
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 9780814796979
Size: 67.98 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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For more than thirty years Hafez al-Asad has ruled Syria with an iron fist. Six U.S. presidents and eight Israeli prime ministers have come and gone, but Asad remains, one of the last of the old generation of Arab leaders. But in the post-Cold War Middle East Asad and his country are faced with an array of bewildering choices. Will they allow greater civil liberties and economic liberalization, or assert strong, centralized one-party control of the state? Will they make peace with Israel, and at what price? Will they cement their growing relationship with the United States or return to the hostilities of the past? Eyal Zisser tackles these questions and gets inside the mind of the man President Clinton called "the smartest leader in the Middle East." He also examines the peculiar dynamics of the Asad family with its Byzantine power plays and competing factions. He tells the fascinating story of how Asad struggles to appease his relatives and his clan while his son waits in the wings to assume power and his brother plots from abroad to gain control of the nation he regards as rightfully his. Asad's Legacy is the most up-to-date, thorough treatment of Asad's role in the history and politics of the contemporary Middle East. Zisser sheds new light on the story of Asad's rule over his nation and points the way to the future of Syria and the entire region.

Syria Under Bashar Al Asad

Author: Volker Perthes
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136056327
Size: 30.76 MB
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Syria entered a new phase with the death of its long-serving leader, Hafiz al-Asad, and the accession of his son Bashar in 2000. While the new president has disappointed much of the hopes for political opening which he himself has created, Syria is clearly undergoing a process of change. The author analyses the factors of economic and political change in the country, and gives a portrait of its new leadership.

Armed Conflict In Syria

Author: Congressional Research Service
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781545387412
Size: 30.40 MB
Format: PDF
View: 5120
A deadly chemical weapons attack in Syria on April 4, 2017, and a U.S. military strike in response on April 6 have returned the conflict, now in its seventh year, to the forefront of international attention. In response to the April 4 attack, some Members of Congress called for the United States to conduct a punitive military operation. These Members and some others since have praised President Trump's decision to launch a limited strike, with some calling on the President to consult with Congress about Syria strategy. Other Members have questioned the President's authority to launch the strike in the absence of specific prior authorization from Congress. In the past, some in Congress have expressed concern about the international and domestic authorizations for such strikes, their potential unintended consequences, and the possibility of undesirable or unavoidable escalation.Since taking office in January 2017, President Trump has stated his intention to "destroy" the Syria- and Iraq-based insurgent terrorist group known as the Islamic State (IS, also known as ISIL, ISIS, or the Arabic acronym Da'esh), and the President has ordered actions to "accelerate" U.S. military efforts against the group in both countries. In late March, senior U.S. officials signaled that the United States would prioritize the fight against the Islamic State and said that Syrian President Bashar al Asad's future would be determined by the Syrian people. Nevertheless, in the wake of the April 4 attack it remains to be seen whether the United States will more directly seek to compel Asad's departure from power while pursuing the ongoing campaign against the Islamic State.Since late 2015, Asad and his government have leveraged military, financial, and diplomatic support from Russia and Iran to consolidate their position relative to the range of antigovernment insurgents. These insurgents include members of the Islamic State, Islamist and secular fighters, and Al Qaeda-linked networks that are working to integrate themselves with others in opposition-held areas of northwestern Syria. While Islamic State forces have lost territory to the Syrian government, to Turkey-backed Syrian opposition groups, and to U.S.-backed Syrian Kurdish and Arab fighters since early 2016, they remain capable and dangerous. The IS "capital" at Raqqah has been isolated, but large areas of central and eastern Syria remain under IS control. The presence and activities of Russian military forces and Iranian personnel in Syria create complications for U.S. officials and military planners, raising the prospect of inadvertent confrontation with possible regional or global implications.Since March 2011, the conflict has driven over 5 million Syrians into neighboring countries as refugees (out of a total population of more than 22 million). More than 6.3 million other Syrians are internally displaced and are among more than 13.5 million Syrians in need of humanitarian assistance. The United States remains the largest bilateral provider of such assistance, with more than $6.5 billion in U.S. funding identified to date. The United States also has allocated more than $500 million to date for assistance programs in Syria, including the provision of nonlethal equipment to select opposition groups. President Obama requested $238.5 million in FY2017 funding for such assistance. Together, the Obama and Trump Administrations have requested $430 million in FY2017 defense funds to train and equip anti-IS forces in Syria.U.S. officials and Members of Congress continue to debate how best to pursue U.S. regional security and counterterrorism goals in Syria without inadvertently strengthening U.S. adversaries or alienating U.S. partners. The Trump Administration and Members of the 115th Congress, like their predecessors, face challenges inherent to the simultaneous pursuit of U.S. nonproliferation, counterterrorism, civilian protection, and stabilization goals in a complex, evolving conflict.

Implications For World Peace Of The Conflict In Syria

Author: Akram Zaheer
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3668304351
Size: 67.53 MB
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Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2016 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Peace and Conflict Studies, Security, , language: English, abstract: The uprising of Tunisia and then the uprising in Egypt have shaken the internal political stalemate of Arab countries. On the same pattern, revolution in Syria started against the authoritarian regime that soon caught the attention of the global audience including important international powers. This paper presents the conflict in Syria as a crisis that is complex, multidimensional and has critical implications for world peace. Different important dimensions of Syrian conflict are presented and explored briefly to establish the fact that the Syrian conflict is not a mere conflict of an Arab country but it has evolved into a complex political and strategic problem that migt have serious strategic concerns and implications for world peace.

The Battle For Syria

Author: Christopher Phillips
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 030021717X
Size: 21.35 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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An unprecedented analysis of the crucial but underexplored roles the United States and other nations have played in shaping Syria's ongoing civil war Most accounts of Syria's brutal, long-lasting civil war focus on a domestic contest that began in 2011 and only later drew foreign nations into the escalating violence. Christopher Phillips argues instead that the international dimension was never secondary but that Syria's war was, from the very start, profoundly influenced by regional factors, particularly the vacuum created by a perceived decline of U.S. power in the Middle East. This precipitated a new regional order in which six external protagonists--the United States, Russia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Qatar--have violently competed for influence, with Syria a key battleground. Drawing on a plethora of original interviews, Phillips constructs a new narrative of Syria's war. Without absolving the brutal Bashar al-Assad regime, the author untangles the key external factors which explain the acceleration and endurance of the conflict, including the West's strategy against ISIS. He concludes with some insights on Syria and the region's future.


Author: David W. Lesch
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300197225
Size: 28.78 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 4103
David Lesch charts Bashir Assad's turn towards repression and the inexorable steps towards the violence of 2011 and 2012. He recounts the causes of the Syrian uprising, the regime's tactics to remain in power, the responses of other nations to the bloodshed, and the determined efforts of regime opponents.

A World In Disarray

Author: Richard Haass
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 0399562370
Size: 55.60 MB
Format: PDF
View: 2838
"A valuable primer on foreign policy: a primer that concerned citizens of all political persuasions—not to mention the president and his advisers—could benefit from reading." —The New York Times An examination of a world increasingly defined by disorder and a United States unable to shape the world in its image, from the president of the Council on Foreign Relations Things fall apart; the center cannot hold. The rules, policies, and institutions that have guided the world since World War II have largely run their course. Respect for sovereignty alone cannot uphold order in an age defined by global challenges from terrorism and the spread of nuclear weapons to climate change and cyberspace. Meanwhile, great power rivalry is returning. Weak states pose problems just as confounding as strong ones. The United States remains the world’s strongest country, but American foreign policy has at times made matters worse, both by what the U.S. has done and by what it has failed to do. The Middle East is in chaos, Asia is threatened by China’s rise and a reckless North Korea, and Europe, for decades the world’s most stable region, is now anything but. As Richard Haass explains, the election of Donald Trump and the unexpected vote for “Brexit” signals that many in modern democracies reject important aspects of globalization, including borders open to trade and immigrants. In A World in Disarray, Haass argues for an updated global operating system—call it world order 2.0—that reflects the reality that power is widely distributed and that borders count for less. One critical element of this adjustment will be adopting a new approach to sovereignty, one that embraces its obligations and responsibilities as well as its rights and protections. Haass also details how the U.S. should act towards China and Russia, as well as in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. He suggests, too, what the country should do to address its dysfunctional politics, mounting debt, and the lack of agreement on the nature of its relationship with the world. A World in Disarray is a wise examination, one rich in history, of the current world, along with how we got here and what needs doing. Haass shows that the world cannot have stability or prosperity without the United States, but that the United States cannot be a force for global stability and prosperity without its politicians and citizens reaching a new understanding.