Sustainable Agriculture And Food Security In An Era Of Oil Scarcity

Author: Julia Wright
Publisher: Earthscan
ISBN: 1849772738
Size: 19.76 MB
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When other nations are forced to rethink their agricultural and food security strategies in light of the post-peak oil debate, they only have one living example to draw from: that of Cuba in the 1990s. Based on the first and - up till now - only systematic and empirical study to come out of Cuba on this topic, this book examines how the nation successfully headed off its own food crisis after the dissolution of the Soviet Bloc in the early 1990s. The author identifies the policies and practices required for such an achievement under conditions of petroleum-scarcity and in doing so, challenges the mainstream globalized and privatized food systems and food security strategies being driven through in both industrialized and more vulnerable developing regions. Paradoxically, the book dispels the myth that Cuba turned to organic farming nationwide, a myth founded on the success of Cuba's urban organic production systems which visitors to the country are most commonly exposed to. In rural regions, where the author had unique access, industrialized high-input and integrated agriculture is aspired to for the majority of domestic production, despite the ongoing fluctuations in availability of agrochemicals and fuel. By identifying the challenges faced by Cuban institutions and individuals in de-industrializing their food and farming systems, this book provides crucial learning material for the current fledgling attempts at developing energy descent plans and at mainstreaming more organic food systems in industrialized nations. It also informs international policy on sustainable agriculture and food security for less-industrialized countries.

Sustainable Development Of Organic Agriculture

Author: Kimberly Etingoff
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1771884843
Size: 10.11 MB
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This important compilation presents an in-depth view spanning past values and practices, present understandings, and potential futures, and covering a range of concrete case studies on sustainable development of organic agriculture. The book explores the very different facets of organic and sustainable agriculture. Part I of this book delves into the ways that people have approached organic agriculture in sociological, scientific, and economic terms. Part II looks ahead to the future of organic agriculture, presenting opportunities for further progress. Part III consists of an extensive bibliography chronologically developing the progress of organic and sustainable agriculture over two thousand years. The book Studies the cultural dimension of organic consumption Presents how sustainable agriculture can reduce and mitigate the impact of climate change on crop production Looks at the impact of agriculture on both famine and rural poverty in an ecofriendly and socially inclusive manner Examines six of the oldest grain-crop-based organic comparison experiments in the US, looking at the environmental and economic outcomes from organic agroecosystems, to both producers and policymakers Reviews the role of experimentation and innovation in developing sustainable organic agriculture Looks at the challenges of organic farmers Discusses ways to ensure sustainability and resilience of farming Looks at ways to change the mindset of farmers especially in traditional farming communities Explores the development of organic and sustainable agriculture through more than 500 years, ending with the early twenty-first century. Altogether, the chapters provide a nuanced look at the development of organic and sustainable agriculture, with the conclusion that organic is not enough to be sustainable.

Cuban Studies 40

Author: Louis A. Perez, Jr.
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
ISBN: 0822978482
Size: 61.86 MB
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Includes essays on: the role of race in the revolution of 1933; the subject of disaster in eighteenth-century Cuban poetry; developments in Cuban historiography over the past fifty years; a profile of the work of historian Jos Vega Suol; and a remembrance of essayist and literary critic Nara Arajo, who also contributed an article on travel in Cuba for this volume.

Farming Cuba

Author: Carey Clouse
Publisher: Chronicle Books
ISBN: 1616893249
Size: 65.17 MB
Format: PDF
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Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, Cuba found itself solely responsible for feeding a nation that had grown dependent on imports and trade subsidies. With fuel, fertilizers, and pesticides disappearing overnight, citizens began growing their own organic produce anywhere they could find space— on rooftops, balconies, vacant lots, and even school playgrounds. By 1998 there were more than 8,000 urban farms in Havana producing nearly half of the country's vegetables. What began as a grassroots initiative had, in less than a decade, grown into the largest sustainable agriculture initiative ever undertaken, making Cuba the world leader in urban farming. Featuring a wealth of rarely seen material and intimate portraits of the environment, Farming Cuba details the innovative design strategies and explores the social, political, and environmental factors that helped shape this pioneering urban farming program.

Water Harvesting In Sub Saharan Africa

Author: William Critchley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136273050
Size: 56.71 MB
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Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa is constrained by highly variable rainfall, frequent drought and low water productivity. There is an urgent need, heightened by climate change, for appropriate technologies to address this problem through managing and increasing the quantity of water on farmers’ fields – water harvesting. This book defines water harvesting as a set of approaches which occupy an intermediate position along the water-management spectrum extending from in situ moisture conservation to irrigated agriculture. They generally comprise small-scale systems that induce, collect, store and make use of local surface runoff for agriculture. The authors review development experience and set out the state of the art of water harvesting for crop production and other benefits in Sub-Saharan Africa. This includes an assessment of water harvesting schemes that were initiated two or three decades ago when interest was stimulated by the droughts of the 1970s and 1980s. These provide lessons to promote sustainable development of dryland agriculture in the face of changing environmental conditions. Case studies from eight countries across Sub-Saharan Africa provide the evidence base. Each follows a similar format and is based on assessments conducted in collaboration with in-country partners, with a focus on attempts to promote adoption of water harvesting, both horizontally (spread) and vertically (institutionalization). Introductory cross-cutting chapters as well as an analytical conclusion are also included.

The Conversion To Sustainable Agriculture

Author: Stephen R. Gliessman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420003598
Size: 45.84 MB
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With all of the environmental and social problems confronting our food systems today, it is apparent that none of the strategies we have relied on in the past―higher-yielding varieties, increased irrigation, inorganic fertilizers, pest damage reduction―can be counted on to come to the rescue. In fact, these solutions are now part of the problem. It is becoming quite clear that the only way to keep the food crisis from escalating is to promote the conversion processes that will move agriculture to sustainability. Under the editorial guidance of agroecology experts Martha Rosemeyer and the internationally renowned Dr. Stephen R. Gliessman, The Conversion to Sustainable Agriculture: Principles, Processes, and Practices establishes a framework for how this conversion can be accomplished and presents case studies from around the world that illustrate how the process is already underway. The book provides a four-stage transition process for achieving sustainability and an in-depth analysis of the global efforts to make farms more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly. An international team of chapter contributors explores ways to lessen dependency on fossil fuels and pesticides, and examines each step in the conversion process. They also describe the process of monitoring change toward sustainable agriculture while integrating social and economic analysis within scientific practices. Serving as both a core textbook for students and a comprehensive reference for agricultural practitioners, this volume is a valuable resource for the change that is needed in our food system now and in the future.

Unfinished Puzzle

Author: May Ling Chan
Publisher: Food First Books
ISBN: 0935028404
Size: 59.52 MB
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Cuba is widely recognized for its social achievements including health care, education, social security, subsidized food and other benefits and opportunities, despite well-meaning, or sometimes not so well-meaning, international criticisms. For more than 50 years, this Caribbean island has defended and sustained these economic, political, social and cultural gains, and has maintained a commitment to humanitarianism and international solidarity that persists to this day. Part one of Unfinished Puzzle describes the socioeconomic context of Cuban agriculture, the natural environment that affect it and the international political context in which it has developed. Part two explores the unique agricultural policies Cubans implemented to confront the food and economic crises of the early 1990s. Finally, part three examines the lessons to be learned from the Cuban experience with respect to local development, sustainable agriculture, agroecology, food security and food sovereignty. It highlights the elements of the Cuban system most suitable for replication in other countries facing similar circumstances or challenges.

Ecological Public Health

Author: Geof Rayner
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136482709
Size: 37.57 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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What is public health? To some, it is about drains, water, food and housing, all requiring engineering and expert management. To others, it is the State using medicine or health education and tackling unhealthy lifestyles. This book argues that public health thinking needs an overhaul, a return to and modernisation around ecological principles. Ecological Public Health thinking, outlined here, fits the twenty-first century’s challenges. It integrates what the authors call the four dimensions of existence: the material, biological, social and cultural aspects of life. Public health becomes the task of transforming the relationship between people, their circumstances and the biological world of nature and bodies. For Geof Rayner and Tim Lang, this is about facing a number of long-term transitions, some well recognized, others not. These transitions are Demographic, Epidemiological, Urban, Energy, Economic, Nutrition, Biological, Cultural and Democracy itself. The authors argue that identifying large scale transitions such as these refocuses public health actions onto the conditions on which human and eco-systems health interact. Making their case, Rayner and Lang map past confusions in public health images, definitions and models. This is an optimistic book, arguing public health can be rescued from its current dilemmas and frustrations. This century’s agenda is unavoidably complex, however, and requires stronger and more daring combinations of interdisciplinary work, movements and professions locally, nationally and globally. Outlining these in the concluding section, the book charts a positive and reinvigorated institutional purpose.

Farmers Experiments

Author: J. E. Sumberg
Publisher: Lynne Rienner Pub
ISBN: 9781555876746
Size: 80.80 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The growing interest in greater farmer participation in formal agricultural research has had major implications both for investment priorities and for models of organisation, implementation and management of agricutural research and development.