Statistical Strategies For Small Sample Research

Author: Rick H. Hoyle
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9780761908869
Size: 30.82 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 3699
Download
This book provides encouragement and strategies for researchers who routinely address research questions using data from small samples. Chapters cover such topics as: using multiple imputation software with small sets; computing and combining effect sizes; bootstrap hypothesis testing; application of latent variable modeling; time-series data from small numbers of individuals; and sample size, reliability and tests of statistical mediation.

Data Analysis With Small Samples And Non Normal Data

Author: Carl F. Siebert
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199391505
Size: 58.90 MB
Format: PDF
View: 784
Download
In social sciences, education, and public health research, researchers often conduct small pilot studies (or may have planned for a larger sample but lost too many cases due to attrition or missingness), leaving them with a smaller sample than they expected and thus less power for their statistical analyses. Similarly, researchers may find that their data are not normally distributed -- especially in clinical samples -- or that the data may not meet other assumptions required for parametric analyses. In these situations, nonparametric analytic strategies can be especially useful, though they are likely unfamiliar. A clearly written reference book, Data Analysis with Small Samples and Non-Normal Data offers step-by-step instructions for each analytic technique in these situations. Researchers can easily find what they need, matching their situation to the case-based scenarios that illustrate the many uses of nonparametric strategies. Unlike most statistics books, this text is written in straightforward language (thereby making it accessible for nonstatisticians) while providing useful information for those already familiar with nonparametric tests. Screenshots of the software and output allow readers to follow along with each step of an analysis. Assumptions for each of the tests, typical situations in which to use each test, and descriptions of how to explain the findings in both statistical and everyday language are all included for each nonparametric strategy. Additionally, a useful companion website provides SPSS syntax for each test, along with the data set used for the scenarios in the book. Researchers can use the data set, following the steps in the book, to practice each technique before using it with their own data. Ultimately, the many helpful features of this book make it an ideal long-term reference for researchers to keep in their personal libraries.

Sample Size Determination In Quantitative Social Work Research

Author: Patrick Dattalo
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190295546
Size: 71.77 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
View: 1322
Download
A researchers decision about the sample to draw in a study may have an enormous impact on the results, and it rests on numerous statistical and practical considerations that can be difficult to juggle. Computer programs help, but no single software package exists that allows researchers to determine sample size across all statistical procedures. This pocket guide shows social work students, educators, and researchers how to prevent some of the mistakes that would result from a wrong sample size decision by describing and critiquing four main approaches to determining sample size. In concise, example-rich chapters, Dattalo covers sample-size determination using power analysis, confidence intervals, computer-intensive strategies, and ethical or cost considerations, as well as techniques for advanced and emerging statistical strategies such as structural equation modeling, multilevel analysis, repeated measures MANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA. He also offers strategies for mitigating pressures to increase sample size when doing so may not be feasible. Whether as an introduction to the process for students or as a refresher for experienced researchers, this practical guide is a perfect overview of a crucial but often overlooked step in empirical social work research.

Handbook Of Structural Equation Modeling

Author: Rick H. Hoyle
Publisher: Guilford Publications
ISBN: 1462516793
Size: 65.65 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 4824
Download
The first comprehensive structural equation modeling (SEM) handbook, this accessible volume presents both the mechanics of SEM and specific SEM strategies and applications. The editor, contributors, and editorial advisory board are leading methodologists who have organized the book to move from simpler material to more statistically complex modeling approaches. Sections cover the foundations of SEM; statistical underpinnings, from assumptions to model modifications; steps in implementation, from data preparation through writing the SEM report; and basic and advanced applications, including new and emerging topics in SEM. Each chapter provides conceptually oriented descriptions, fully explicated analyses, and engaging examples that reveal modeling possibilities for use with readers' data. Many of the chapters also include access to data and syntax files at the companion website, allowing readers to try their hands at reproducing the authors' results.

Small Clinical Trials

Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309171144
Size: 46.76 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 5174
Download
Clinical trials are used to elucidate the most appropriate preventive, diagnostic, or treatment options for individuals with a given medical condition. Perhaps the most essential feature of a clinical trial is that it aims to use results based on a limited sample of research participants to see if the intervention is safe and effective or if it is comparable to a comparison treatment. Sample size is a crucial component of any clinical trial. A trial with a small number of research participants is more prone to variability and carries a considerable risk of failing to demonstrate the effectiveness of a given intervention when one really is present. This may occur in phase I (safety and pharmacologic profiles), II (pilot efficacy evaluation), and III (extensive assessment of safety and efficacy) trials. Although phase I and II studies may have smaller sample sizes, they usually have adequate statistical power, which is the committee's definition of a "large" trial. Sometimes a trial with eight participants may have adequate statistical power, statistical power being the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the hypothesis is false. Small Clinical Trials assesses the current methodologies and the appropriate situations for the conduct of clinical trials with small sample sizes. This report assesses the published literature on various strategies such as (1) meta-analysis to combine disparate information from several studies including Bayesian techniques as in the confidence profile method and (2) other alternatives such as assessing therapeutic results in a single treated population (e.g., astronauts) by sequentially measuring whether the intervention is falling above or below a preestablished probability outcome range and meeting predesigned specifications as opposed to incremental improvement.

Small Clinical Trials

Author: Committee on Strategies for Small-Number-Participant Clinical Research Trials
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309073332
Size: 18.43 MB
Format: PDF
View: 3134
Download
Clinical trials are used to elucidate the most appropriate preventive, diagnostic, or treatment options for individuals with a given medical condition. Perhaps the most essential feature of a clinical trial is that it aims to use results based on a limited sample of research participants to see if the intervention is safe and effective or if it is comparable to a comparison treatment. Sample size is a crucial component of any clinical trial. A trial with a small number of research participants is more prone to variability and carries a considerable risk of failing to demonstrate the effectiveness of a given intervention when one really is present. This may occur in phase I (safety and pharmacologic profiles), II (pilot efficacy evaluation), and III (extensive assessment of safety and efficacy) trials. Although phase I and II studies may have smaller sample sizes, they usually have adequate statistical power, which is the committee's definition of a "large" trial. Sometimes a trial with eight participants may have adequate statistical power, statistical power being the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the hypothesis is false. Small Clinical Trials assesses the current methodologies and the appropriate situations for the conduct of clinical trials with small sample sizes. This report assesses the published literature on various strategies such as (1) meta-analysis to combine disparate information from several studies including Bayesian techniques as in the confidence profile method and (2) other alternatives such as assessing therapeutic results in a single treated population (e.g., astronauts) by sequentially measuring whether the intervention is falling above or below a preestablished probability outcome range and meeting predesigned specifications as opposed to incremental improvement.

The Ethics Of Social Research

Author: Joan Sieber
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461257190
Size: 51.70 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 4396
Download
Social scientists are unprepared for many of the ethical problems that arise in their research, and for criticisms of their ethics that seem to ignore such cherished scientific values as objectivity and freedom of inquiry. Yet, they possess method ological talent and insight into human nature that can be used to understand and resolve these problems. The contributors to this book demonstrate that criticism of the ethics of social research can stimulate constructive development of meth odology. Both volumes of The Ethics of Social Research were written for and by social scientists to show how ethical dilemmas arise in the day-to-day conduct of social research and how they can be resolved. The topics discussed in this book include ethical problems that arise in experiments and sample surveys; the companion volume deals with the ethical issues involved in fieldwork and in the regulation and publication of research. With candor and humor, many of the contributors describe lessons they have learned about themselves, their methods, and their research participants. Collectively, they illustrate that both humanists and detenninists are likely to encounter ethical dilemmas in their research, albeit different ones, and that a blending of detenninistic and humanistic approaches may be needed to solve these dilemmas. The aim of this book is to assist irwestigators in preparing to meet some of the ethical problems that await the unwary. It offers perspectives, values, and guidelines for anticipating problems and devising solutions.

Messung Und Steuerung Der Kommunikations Effizienz

Author: Jürgen Schwarz
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3658002794
Size: 63.47 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 2121
Download
​Der zunehmende Wettbewerbsdruck in allen Branchen zwingt Unternehmen ihre Marketingbudgets nicht nur effektiv sondern auch möglichst effizient einzusetzen. Vor allem im Kommunikationscontrolling wird vermehrt eine systematische Messung und Steuerung der Kommunikations-effizienz gefordert, die transparent und nachvollziehbar ist. Jürgen Schwarz identifiziert eine vielversprechende Methode und überprüft deren Anwendbarkeit zur Messung der Kommunikationseffizienz sowohl theoretisch als auch im Rahmen empirischer Studien. Der Autor liefert Erkenntnisse für die Anwendung der Methode und leitet Handlungsempfehlungen für das Kommunikationscontrolling sowie Implikationen für die Messung der Kommunikationseffizienz ab.

Introduction To Research In The Health Sciences E Book

Author: Stephen Polgar
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0702050164
Size: 13.55 MB
Format: PDF
View: 1280
Download
Like the previous versions, the fifth edition of An Introduction to Research in the Health Sciences has two overall aims. 1) To introduce the fundamental principles of research methodology and explain how these principles are applied for conducting research in the health sciences. 2) To demonstrate how evidence produced through research is applied to solving problems in everday health care. This book is written in an accessible style. It maintains the traditions of the previous editions, with examples, questions, feedback sections, and an extensive glossary. Uses simple language and demystifies the jargon Provides built-in feedback for readers to assess their own progress Gives examples relating directly to the health sciences Provides an extensive glossary for better understanding of the language of research Addresses qualitative as well as quantitative research issues Includes a chapter focussing on the use of qualitative methods in health research Includes a chapter for discussing systematic reviews and meta-analyses Contains more revision questions Increased emphasis throughout on evidence based concepts More and updated discussion of qualitative research methods New section on basic epidemiological concepts as a research approach More discussion of analysis and use of administrative and secondary data sets as research resources Complete rewrite of the chapter on causal research Stronger links between the sections on different stages of research

Designing Clinical Research

Author: Stephen B. Hulley
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISBN: 9780781782104
Size: 72.70 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 3696
Download
This third edition sets the standard for providing a practical guide to planning, tabulating, formulating, and implementing clinical research, with an easy-to-read, uncomplicated presentation. This edition incorporates current research methodology and offers an updated syllabus for conducting a clinical research workshop.