Pulsed Electrical Discharge In Vacuum

Author: Gennady A. Mesyats
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642837005
Size: 55.32 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 1091
This is an up-to-date review of studies in the physics of pulsed electrical discharges in a vacuum. It gives the reader detailed information on the processes occurring at electrodes and in vacuum gaps and on the mechanisms of discharge initiation and development. Modern techniques and equipment are described in detail. Their high temporal and spatial resolution may be used to solve a number of problems concerning the short-term and microscopic aspects of discharges. A summary is given of a great deal of experimental data on the kinetics of vacuum breakdown. The authors used these results to identify a series of steps in the vacuum breakdown phenomenon. They were the first to discover and describe the explosive electron emission phenomenon and to show its fundamental role in the spark and the arc stages of a discharge. The information in this book may encourage the reader to design new experiments. The results presented may be applied to solve specific research or engineering problems.

Chemical Product Design

Author: E. L. Cussler
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 113949791X
Size: 77.42 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 6021
The chemical industry is changing, going beyond commodity chemicals to a palette of higher value added products. This groundbreaking book, now revised and expanded, documents this change and shows how to meet the challenges implied. Presenting a four-step design process - needs, ideas, selection, manufacture - the authors supply readers with a simple design template that can be applied to a wide variety of products. Four new chapters on commodities, devices, molecules/drugs and microstructures show how this template can be applied to products including oxygen for emphysema patients, pharmaceuticals like taxol, dietary supplements like lutein, and beverages which are more satisfying. For different groups of products the authors supply both strategies for design and summaries of relevant science. Economic analysis is expanded, emphasizing the importance of speed-to-market, selling ideas to investors and an expectation of limited time in the market. Extra examples, homework problems and a solutions manual are available.

Public Sector Management

Author: David McKevitt
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9780803977136
Size: 51.53 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 6062
Provides an overview of the theory and practice of public service management. Using a number of key contributions to the field, the text outlines the social, political and economic contexts in which management has emerged as a central issue in the public sector of industrial nations.

Runaway Electrons Preionized Diffuse Discharges

Author: Victor F. Tarasenko
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
ISBN: 9781633218833
Size: 30.77 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 5893
This collective book provides a review and summary of recent ten-year research in runaway electron preionised diffuse discharges (REP DD) formed in an inhomogeneous electric field in different gases at increased pressure. Attention is also given to volume (diffuse) discharges in a homogeneous electric field, barrier discharges, and so-called open low-pressure discharges. The book has contributions by research groups from different countries and institutes, which added much to the scope of data presented. New experimental techniques and equipment, including those with picosecond time resolutions, were required for diagnostics of electrical and optical signals. The book consists of 20 chapters, some of which were written jointly by researchers of different teams. We hope that this book will provide the reader with the unique opportunity to gain an insight into various aspects of runaway electron preionised diffuse discharges.

Cathodic Arcs

Author: André Anders
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387791081
Size: 21.59 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
View: 3794
Cathodic arcs are among the longest studied yet least understood objects in science. Plasma-generating, tiny spots appear on the cathode; they are highly dynamic and hard to control. With an approach emphasizing the fractal character of cathode spots, strongly fluctuating plasma properties are described such as the presence of multiply charged ions that move with supersonic velocity. Richly illustrated, the book also deals with practical issues, such as arc source construction, macroparticle removal, and the synthesis of dense, well adherent coatings. The book spans a bridge from plasma physics to coatings technology based on energetic condensation, appealing to scientists, practitioners and graduate students alike.

Re Engineering The Chemical Processing Plant

Author: Andrzej Stankiewicz
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0824757769
Size: 43.75 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 2338
The first guide to compile current research and frontline developments in the science of process intensification (PI), Re-Engineering the Chemical Processing Plant illustrates the design, integration, and application of PI principles and structures for the development and optimization of chemical and industrial plants. This volume updates professionals on emerging PI equipment and methodologies to promote technological advances and operational efficacy in chemical, biochemical, and engineering environments and presents clear examples illustrating the implementation and application of specific process-intensifying equipment and methods in various commercial arenas.

Process Intensification Technologies For Biodiesel Production

Author: A. A. Kiss
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319035541
Size: 16.43 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 4789
This book is among the first to address the novel process intensification technologies for biodiesel production, in particular the integrated reactive separations. It provides a comprehensive overview illustrated with many industrially relevant examples of novel reactive separation processes used in the production of biodiesel (e.g. fatty acid alkyl esters): reactive distillation, reactive absorption, reactive extraction, membrane reactors, and centrifugal contact separators. Readers will also learn about the working principles, design and control of integrated processes, while also getting a relevant and modern overview of the process intensification opportunities for biodiesel synthesis. Biodiesel is a biodegradable and renewable fuel that currently enjoys much attention. In spite of the recent advances, the existing biodiesel processes still suffer from problems associated with the use of homogeneous catalysts (e.g. salt waste streams) and the key limitations imposed by the chemical reaction equilibrium, thus leading to severe economic and environmental penalties. The integration of reaction and separation into one operating unit overcomes equilibrium limitations and provides key benefits such as low capital investment and operating costs. Many of these processes can be further enhanced by heat-integration and powered by heterogeneous catalysts, to eliminate all conventional catalyst related operations, using the raw materials efficiently and the reaction volume, while offering high conversion and selectivity, and significant energy savings. The targeted audience of this book includes both academia (students and researchers) and industry (project leaders, technology managers, researchers, biodiesel producers, and equipment suppliers).

Kids Cook

Author: Sarah Williamson
Publisher: Williamson Pub
ISBN: 9780913589618
Size: 50.79 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 3565
A collection of recipes for breakfasts, lunches, salads, dinners, snacks, and desserts, with an emphasis on safety and creativity.