Security Of Public Water Supplies

Author: Rolf A. Deininger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792361213
Size: 19.30 MB
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The provision of secure drinking water supplies for its citizens is the aim of every government. The quantity of water is in most cases adequate, but the quality in many cases is not. The development of new analytical methods has led to the discovery of new substances of human origin in drinking water. New microorganisms and their toxins pass through the conventional treatment plants to show up in the finished water. What all this means to public health is not clear at present, but it seems that increased vigilance is necessary to provide safe drinking water to all citizens. This book focuses on five major issues: inorganic contaminants, focusing on arsenic and copper; organic contaminants, focusing on petroleum products, insecticides and pesticides; biological and bacteriological problems in raw and finished water and the distribution system; river water watch and surveillance systems; the role of research, the economics of privatization, and the support of international organizations.

Water Supply Systems

Author: Cedo Maksimovic
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642611877
Size: 50.11 MB
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Technology now affects almost every aspect of Water Supply Management, Operation, Planning and Design; the speed of development means that assessing what is "new" is sometimes difficult. Old ideas can now be applied because of new technology; technology is now revealing problems that were unnoticed 10 years ago. Some emerging technologies promise much but are still underdeveloped for use in real world conditions, while we should always remember that "new" technology depends upon the state of development in respective countries, a point which is particularly relevant to the NATO Advanced Study Institute, for which this book has been produced. Thus our objective in producing the book has been to highlight, in a wide range of technical areas, where and how technology is being applied, what is "new" and what the limitations of these technologies are in the real world. We have also tried to provide an European and American perspective where possible to illustrate how problems are tackled in different cultural environments. It is probably true that "technology" is also somewhat dependent upon the political, economic and organisational climate in different countries and we have included a chapter covering these aspects.

Environmental Security And Environmental Management The Role Of Risk Assessment

Author: Benoit Morel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402038933
Size: 73.83 MB
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The concept of “environmental security” has emerged as one basis for understanding international conflicts. This phrase can mean a variety of things. It can signify security issues stemming from environmental concerns or conflicting needs, or it can mean that the environment is treated as a resource for the long term, and the question is what should be done today to preserve the quality of the environment in the future. In the same way that energy security is about ensuring access to energy for the long run, it can also mean that pressing environmental concerns create a situation where different countries and communities are forced to collaboratively design a unified response, even if cooperation is not generally in the logic of their relations. Over the last several years, the authors of this book and their colleagues have tried to demonstrate the power of risk assessment and decision analysis as valuable tools that decision makers should use for a broad range of environmental problems, including environmental security. Risk analysis is almost more a state of mind or a way of looking at problems than it is a kind of algorithm or a set of recipes. It projects a kind of rationality on problems and forces a certain degree of quantitative rigor, as opposed to the all too common tendency of making environmental recommendations based on anecdotal evidence.

Conflict And The Environment

Author: N.P. Gleditsch
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940158947X
Size: 27.61 MB
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Nils Petter Gleditsch International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO) & Department of Sociology and Political Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trond heim This book could hardly have happened but for the end of the Cold War. The decline of the East-West conflict has opened up the arena for increased attention to other lines of conflict, in Europe and at the global level. Environmental disruption, not a new phenomenon by any means, is a chief beneficiary of the shift in priorities in the public debate. The Scientific and Environmental Affairs Divi sion of NATO has moved with the times and has defined environmental security as one of its priority areas for cooperation with Central and Eastern Europe and countries of the former Soviet Union. This book is the main output of an Advanced Research Workshop (ARW), held in Bolkesjl/l, Norway, 12-16 June 1996. I would like to acknowledge the personal support of L. Veiga da Cunha, Director of the Priority Area on Environmental Security. Research on these issues is now very much a collaborative effort across former lines of division in Europe. NATO encourages, indeed requires, that this be reflected in the composition of the participants, as well as the organizing committee. This meeting was organized by a group of five people from five different countries: Lothar Brock (Germany), Nils Petter Gleditsch (Norway), Thomas Homer-Dixon (Canada), Renat Perelet (Co-Director, Russia), and Evan Vlachos (USA).

Advanced Water Supply And Wastewater Treatment A Road To Safer Society And Environment

Author: Petr Hlavinek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400702795
Size: 49.15 MB
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Stable, safe, secure and readily available water supply is one of the key factors in ensuring a good level of the public health and a stable society. Scientific assessments show that about 80 % of diseases and one-third of the total death toll in the developing countries are caused by the low quality of the drinking water. Other countries are also suffering from water shortages and insufficient quality of the drinking water. Many rivers in Europe and in other parts of the world are significantly polluted by insufficiently treated or untreated wastewater discharge. This book is based on the discussions and papers prepared for the NATO Advanced Research Workshop that took place in Lviv, Ukraine, and addressed recent advances in water supply and wastewater treatment as a prerequisite for a safer society and environment. The contributions critically assess the existing knowledge on urban water management and provide an overview of the current water management issues, especially in the countries in transition in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Mediterranean Dialogue countries.

Risk Management Of Water Supply And Sanitation Systems

Author: Petr Hlavinek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048123658
Size: 72.29 MB
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Each year more than 200 million people are affected by floods, tropical storms, droughts, earthquakes, and also operational failures, wars, terrorism, vandalism, and accidents involving hazardous materials. These are part of the wide variety of events that cause death, injury, and significant economic losses for the countries affected. In an environment where natural hazards are present, local actions are decisive in all stages of risk management: in the work of prevention and mitigation, in rehabilitation and reconstruction, and above all in emergency response and the provision of basic services to the affected population. Commitment to systematic vulnerability reduction is crucial to ensure the resilience of communities and populations to the impact of natural and manmade hazards. Current challenges for the water and sanitation sector require an increase in sustainable access to water and sanitation services in residential areas, where natural hazards pose the greatest risk. In settlements located on unstable and risk-prone land there is growing environmental degradation coupled with extreme conditions of poverty that increase vulnerability. The development of local capacity and risk management play vital roles in obtaining sustainability of water and sanitation systems as well as for the communities themselves. Unfortunately water may also represent a potential target for terrorist activity or war conflict and a deliberate contamination of water is a potential public health threat. An approach which considers the needs of communities and institutions is particularly important in urban areas affected by armed conflict. Risk management for large rehabilitation projects has to deal with major changes caused by conflict: damaged or destroyed infrastructure, increased population, corrupt or inefficient water utilities, and impoverished communities. Water supply and sanitation are amongst the first considerations in disaster response. The greatest water-borne risk to health in most emergencies is the transmission of faecal pathogens, due to inadequate sanitation, hygiene and protection of water sources. However, some disasters, including those involving damage to chemical and nuclear industrial installations, or involving volcanic activity, may create acute problems from chemical or radiological water pollution. Sanitation includes safe excreta disposal, drainage of wastewater and rainwater, solid waste disposal and vector control. This book is based on the discussions and papers prepared for the NATO Advanced Research Workshop that took place in Ohrid, Macedonia under the auspices of the NATO Security Through Science Programme and addressed problems Risk management of water supply and sanitation systems impaired by operational failures, natural disasters and war conflicts. The main purpose of the workshop was to critically assess the existing knowledge on Risk management of water supply and sanitation systems, with respect to diverse conditions in participating countries, and promote close co-operation among scientists with different professional experience from different countries. The ARW technical program comprised papers on 4 topics, : (a) Vulnerability of Wastewater and Sanitation Systems, (b) Vulnerability of Drinking Water Systems, (c) Emergency response plans, and (d) Case studies from regions affected by Drinking Water System, Wastewater and Sanitation System failures.

Water Supply In Emergency Situations

Author: Yair Sharan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1402063059
Size: 69.15 MB
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This book reflects the outcome of a three day NATO Advanced Workshop entitled "Supply of Water to Cities in Emergency Situations." Some 35 experts from 14 countries from Europe, the Middle East and Asia assembled in Tel-Aviv for this event. It illuminates a broad spectrum of problems and concerns to the orderly water supply ranging from floods to a surprisingly low concern related to intentional terror-related threats.

Integrated Water Resources Management And Security In The Middle East

Author: Clive Lipchin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402059868
Size: 49.87 MB
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This volume brings together diverse voices relating to the critical issue of water management in one of the world’s most politically volatile areas: the Middle East. The book collects the opinions of Palestinians, Israelis, Jordanians as well as international experts on creating a holistic and comprehensive view of water management challenges and strategies in the Middle East.

Environmental Change Adaptation And Security

Author: S. Lonergan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792361206
Size: 18.63 MB
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The papers collected here range from descriptions of environmental and health issues in Russia and Eastern Europe to models of sustainable land use. This diversity of perspectives on the environment and security is indicative of both the breadth of this new area of research as well as of the varied background of the researchers involved. The volume reflects the vitality of the topic.

Soil Quality Sustainable Agriculture And Environmental Security In Central And Eastern Europe

Author: Michael Wilson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401141819
Size: 50.53 MB
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Agriculture is a crucial component of the economies of many of the countries in transition from a centrally-planned to a market economy and the sector is by no means immune to the environmental and socioeconomic problems confronting the countries as a whole. The concept of sustainable development provides a convenient framework for the formulation of government environmental policy for such countries, especially those of them that aspire to join the EU and would thus be expected to meet EU environmental standards. For agriculture, this inevitably involves appropriate strategies for balancing crop and animal production while protecting the quality of the national soil and water resources. There is thus an urgent need to compile, exchange and evaluate current information on the quality of soils in these countries, and to assess the potential impact of new management practices on the soil and on the wider environment.