Securing The Peace

Author: Monica Duffy Toft
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400831997
Size: 22.24 MB
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Timely and pathbreaking, Securing the Peace is the first book to explore the complete spectrum of civil war terminations, including negotiated settlements, military victories by governments and rebels, and stalemates and ceasefires. Examining the outcomes of all civil war terminations since 1940, Monica Toft develops a general theory of postwar stability, showing how third-party guarantees may not be the best option. She demonstrates that thorough security-sector reform plays a critical role in establishing peace over the long term. Much of the thinking in this area has centered on third parties presiding over the maintenance of negotiated settlements, but the problem with this focus is that fewer than a quarter of recent civil wars have ended this way. Furthermore, these settlements have been precarious, often resulting in a recurrence of war. Toft finds that military victory, especially victory by rebels, lends itself to a more durable peace. She argues for the importance of the security sector--the police and military--and explains that victories are more stable when governments can maintain order. Toft presents statistical evaluations and in-depth case studies that include El Salvador, Sudan, and Uganda to reveal that where the security sector remains robust, stability and democracy are likely to follow. An original and thoughtful reassessment of civil war terminations, Securing the Peace will interest all those concerned about resolving our world's most pressing conflicts.

Securing Peace

Author: Richard Kozul-Wright
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1849665885
Size: 60.32 MB
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This book studies the processes which lead to explosion of civil strife and tries to spell out the policy options available to address the challenges faced by post-conflict economies. It calls for a more integrated policy approach which can gradually repair trust in public institutions as it addresses the vulnerabilities and grievances that helped start the process. Usually, such societies do not have the luxury of meeting the goals of security, reconciliation and development in a measured or sequenced manner: to avoid an immediate return to violence they must begin the recovery process on all fronts simultaneously.

Securing Peace

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Sri Lanka has experienced over twenty years of internal armed conflict. With a ceasefire agreement in place between the Government of Sri Lanka (GoSL) and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), there is a renewed possibility for peace. However, much work needs to be done before a final peace settlement is negotiated. What steps do Sri Lanka and its supporters need to undertake in order to transition from the current ceasefire to a more stable and peaceful post-conflict period? This report offers a practical and priority-focused action strategy plan that will assist Sri Lankan and international actors to create an enabling environment in which a foundation for peace in Sri Lanka can be laid.

Securing Peace In Africa

Author: Jeffrey Ira Herbst
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 42.72 MB
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The threats to peace in Africa largely come not throughinterstate war but through conflict within nations. Peace in Africa will come only when Africans create and maintain diplomatic and military methods of keeping it. This report analyzes the myriad obstacles to conflict prevention in Africa and suggests those which might be susceptible to short- and medium-term removal. Africa's security situation will continueto deteriorate unless the nations of Africa take charge.

Securing Peace In Europe 1945 62

Author: Beatrice Heuser
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 9780333550021
Size: 41.72 MB
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As European security structures are undergoing transformation in the 1990s it is crucial to examine their origins and rationale: NATO secured peace and facilitated economic and political co-operation, while also becoming the vehicle of national rivalry. This book examines why and how NATO came into existence, and what its strengths and weaknesses were during its formative years. It draws conclusions from these experiences relevant to the reforms of Western security structures in the 1990s.

Japan S Peace Building Diplomacy In Asia

Author: Peng Er Lam
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134125054
Size: 25.44 MB
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The conventional portrayal of Japan’s role in international affairs is of a passive political player which – despite its position as the world’s second largest economic power – punches below its weight on the world stage: its foreign policy driven by Washington, mercantilism and constrained by domestic pacifism. This book examines Japan’s emerging identity as an important participant in conflict prevention and peace-building in Southeast and South Asia, demonstrating that Japan has increasingly sought a positive and active political role commensurate with its economic pre-eminence. The book considers Japanese involvement in many of the region’s most serious recent conflicts: including Japan’s part in the brokering and maintaining of peace in Cambodia, which in 1992 saw the first dispatch of troops abroad by Tokyo since the end of World War II, and the attempts to bring peace to Aceh, Sri Lanka, East Timor and Mindanao. The Japanese example, when compared with other countries prominent in the fields of conflict prevention, suggests that Tokyo – given its pacifist strategic culture – relies on diplomacy and Official Development Assistance rather than peace enforcement through military means. Overall, this book provides a lucid appraisal of Japan’s overall foreign policy, as well as its new role in conflict prevention and peace-building - analysing the reasons behind this shift towards an active international role and assessing the degree of success it has enjoyed.

Securing Africa

Author: Toyin Falola
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136662588
Size: 48.10 MB
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Africa has been and currently is the site of numerous conflicts and crises. Authors previously wrote of these as specifically African problems or the problems of Europeans in Africa, but newer scholarship on other aspects of Africa has come to stress the interconnectness of Africa and the wider world. Still, it has often been limited to studies of isolated instances within African countries, with little-to-no connection to greater patterns of international power and violence. This volume explores the historical and present local and international dimensions of the myriad security crises in Africa, from the role of international relations during liberation to multination efforts against piracy.

Aceh Indonesia

Author: Elizabeth F. Drexler
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 9780812220711
Size: 66.34 MB
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In 1998, Indonesia exploded with both euphoria and violence after the fall of its longtime authoritarian ruler, Soeharto, and his New Order regime. Hope centered on establishing the rule of law, securing civilian control over the military, and ending corruption. Indonesia under Soeharto was a fundamentally insecure state. Shadowy organizations, masterminds, provocateurs, puppet masters, and other mysterious figures recalled the regime's inaugural massive anticommunist violence in 1965 and threatened to recreate those traumas in the present. Threats metamorphosed into deadly violence in a seemingly endless spiral. In Aceh province, the cycle spun out of control, and an imagined enemy came to life as armed separatist rebels. Even as state violence and systematic human rights violations were publicly exposed after Soeharto's fall, a lack of judicial accountability has perpetuated pervasive mistrust that undermines civil society. Elizabeth F. Drexler analyzes how the Indonesian state has sustained itself amid anxieties and insecurities generated by historical and human rights accounts of earlier episodes of violence. In her examination of the Aceh conflict, Drexler demonstrates the falsity of the reigning assumption of international human rights organizations that the exposure of past violence promotes accountability and reconciliation rather than the repetition of abuses. She stresses that failed human rights interventions can be more dangerous than unexamined past conflicts, since the international stage amplifies grievances and provides access for combatants to resources from outside the region. Violent conflict itself, as well as historical narratives of past violence, become critical economic and political capital, deepening the problem. The book concludes with a consideration of the improved prospects for peace in Aceh following the devastating 2004 tsunami.

Just And Unjust Peace

Author: Daniel Philpott
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199969221
Size: 50.58 MB
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Winner of the 2013 Christianity Today Book Award in Missions / Global Affairs Winner of the Aldersgate Prize Honorable Mention Winner of the 2014 International Studies Association International Ethics Section Book Award In the wake of massive injustice, how can justice be achieved and peace restored? Is it possible to find a universal standard that will work for people of diverse and often conflicting religious, cultural, and philosophical backgrounds? In Just and Unjust Peace, Daniel Philpott offers an innovative and hopeful response to these questions. He challenges the approach to peace-building that dominates the United Nations, western governments, and the human rights community. While he shares their commitments to human rights and democracy, Philpott argues that these values alone cannot redress the wounds caused by war, genocide, and dictatorship. Both justice and the effective restoration of political order call for a more holistic, restorative approach. Philpott answers that call by proposing a form of political reconciliation that is deeply rooted in three religious traditions--Christianity, Islam, and Judaism--as well as the restorative justice movement. These traditions offer the fullest expressions of the core concepts of justice, mercy, and peace. By adapting these ancient concepts to modern constitutional democracy and international norms, Philpott crafts an ethic that has widespread appeal and offers real hope for the restoration of justice in fractured communities. From the roots of these traditions, Philpott develops six practices--building just institutions and relations between states, acknowledgment, reparations, restorative punishment, apology and, most important, forgiveness--which he then applies to real cases, identifying how each practice redresses a unique set of wounds. Focusing on places as varied as Bosnia, Iraq, South Africa, Germany, Sierra Leone, Timor-Leste, Chile and many others--and drawing upon the actual experience of victims and perpetrators--Just and Unjust Peace offers a fresh approach to the age-old problem of restoring justice in the aftermath of widespread injustice.