Radiation Risks In Perspective

Author: Kenneth L. Mossman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849379789
Size: 77.13 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
View: 2697
Download
Public misperception of radiological risk consistently directs limited resources toward managing minimal or even phantom risks at great cost to government and industry with no measurable benefit to overall public health. The public’s inability to comprehend small theoretical risks arrived at through inherently uncertain formulae, coupled with an irrational push to eliminate all risk with no contextual understanding of overall benefit, results in a forfeiture of valuable advances in technology in favor of an illusion of safety. Radiation Risks in Perspective uses general concepts underlying radiological risk as a model to illuminate the fundamental problems in public perception, reaction, and policy when faced with possible health risks. Presenting three distinct themes, the author summarizes the causes for the failure of the current system and proposes methods for correction. Beginning with a discussion of the methods used to measure threat, the author weighs the nebulous assessment of risk with the use of a quantifiable assessment of hazardous dose, which uses actual numbers that the public can readily understand and that decision makers can confidently use to enact policy and measure success. Secondly, the author addresses the contextual balancing of cost versus benefit when prioritizing expenditure, specifically emphasizing that it is inappropriate to analyze and discuss individual risks without regard to the presence of other risks. Finally, the author analyzes the public’s tendency to push toward zero risk tolerance, an extremist approach that leads to unreasonable restrictions on technologies, excessive regulatory compliance costs, and the ultimate loss of goods and services. With detailed explanations and illustrative case studies, Radiation Risks in Perspective offers scientists, lawyers, engineers, policy makers, and public health professionals, the skills they need for a rational evaluation of risk.

Radiation Research Congress Abstracts

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 72.80 MB
Format: PDF
View: 3386
Download
Radiation Research, A Twentieth-Century Perspective, Volume I: Congress Abstracts is a collection of abstracts presented at the Ninth International Congress of Radiation Research convened in Toronto, Canada, organized by the Radiation Research Society and the North American Hyperthermia Group at the invitation of the International Association of Radiation Research. The Toronto venue for this congress recognizes a major role by Canadian scientists in the field of radiation research and also the strong participation of Canadian scientists in the North American Radiation Research Society. Origina...

Radiation Research A Twentieth Century Perspective

Author: J Champan
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0323146554
Size: 26.94 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 7139
Download
Radiation Research, A Twentieth-Century Perspective, Volume I: Congress Abstracts is a collection of abstracts presented at the Ninth International Congress of Radiation Research convened in Toronto, Canada, organized by the Radiation Research Society and the North American Hyperthermia Group at the invitation of the International Association of Radiation Research. The Toronto venue for this congress recognizes a major role by Canadian scientists in the field of radiation research and also the strong participation of Canadian scientists in the North American Radiation Research Society. Original science is shared at these Congresses through Congress lectures, symposia presentations, and proffered papers. The Congress Board of Directors adopted a proposal that all abstracts of scientific presentations should become a permanent record of the official proceedings of the Congress. In a manner somewhat analogous to the Canadian postal code system, each abstract in this volume is identified at the top left hand corner by a code consisting of both letters and numbers printed on three lines. Line one consists of one letter and two numbers that uniquely identify each scientific event. The second line consists of a double digit number that designates the sequence of presentation within the specific scientific event. The third line consists of a double letter code in which the first letter indicates the day of the week on which abstract material is presented and/or discussed, and the second letter indicates a morning or afternoon session.

Calculated Risks

Author: Joseph V. Rodricks
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139459511
Size: 53.49 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 382
Download
Safeguarding economic prosperity, whilst protecting human health and the environment, is at the forefront of scientific and public interest. This book provides a practical and balanced view on toxicology, control, risk assessment and risk management, addressing the interplay between science and public health policy. This revised edition provides a detailed analysis on chemical and by-product exposure, how they enter the body and the suitability of imposed safety limits. Chapters on dose, with particular emphasis on children and vulnerable subpopulations, reproductive and developmental toxicants and toxicity testing are included. With updated and comprehensive coverage of international developments of risk management and safety, this will have broad appeal to researchers and professionals involved in chemical safety and regulation as well as the general reader interested in environmental pollution and public health.

Radiation Effects In Concrete For Nuclear Power Plants Part Ii

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 76.99 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 7548
Download
The need to understand and characterize the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete has become urgent because of the possible extension of service life of many nuclear power generating stations. Current knowledge is primarily based on a collection of data obtained in test reactors. These results are inherently difficult to interpret because materials and testing conditions are inconsistent. A micromechanical approach based on the Hashin composite sphere model is presented to derive a first-order separation of the effects of radiation on cement paste and aggregate, and, also, on their interaction. Although the scarcity of available data limits the validation of the model, it appears that, without negating a possible gamma-ray induced effect, the neutron-induced damage and swelling of aggregate plays a predominant role on the overall concrete expansion and the damage of the cement paste. Finally, the radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) effects can also be aided by temperature elevation and shrinkage in the cement paste.

Reliability And Radiation Effects In Compound Semiconductors

Author: Allan Johnston
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814277118
Size: 50.88 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
View: 6728
Download
This book focuses on reliability and radiation effects in compound semiconductors, which have evolved rapidly during the last 15 years. It starts with first principles, and shows how advances in device design and manufacturing have suppressed many of the older reliability mechanisms. It is the first book that comprehensively covers reliability and radiation effects in optoelectronic as well as microelectronic devices. It contrasts reliability mechanisms of compound semiconductors with those of silicon-based devices, and shows that the reliability of many compound semiconductors has improved to the level where they can be used for ten years or more with low failure rates.

Potential Radiation Exposure In Military Operations

Author: Committee on Battlefield Radiation Exposure Criteria
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309064392
Size: 10.12 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 927
Download
In 1996, NATO issued guidance for the exposure of military personnel to radiation doses different from occupational dose levels, but not high enough to cause acute health effects-and in doing so set policy in a new arena. Scientific and technological developments now permit small groups or individuals to use, or threaten to use, destructive devices (nuclear, biological, chemical, and cyber-based weaponry, among others) targeted anywhere in the world. Political developments, such as the loss of political balance once afforded by competing superpowers, have increased the focus on regional and subregional disputes. What doctrine should guide decisionmaking regarding the potential exposure of troops to radiation in this changed theater of military operations? In 1995, the Office of the U.S. Army Surgeon General asked the Medical Follow-up Agency of the Institute of Medicine to provide advice. This report is the final product of the Committee on Battlefield Radiation Exposure Criteria convened for that purpose. In its 1997 interim report, Evaluation of Radiation Exposure Guidance for Military Operations, the committee addressed the technical aspects of the NATO directive. In this final report, the committee reiterates that discussion and places it in an ethical context.

Strange Glow

Author: Timothy J. Jorgensen
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400880521
Size: 16.84 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 366
Download
More than ever before, radiation is a part of our modern daily lives. We own radiation-emitting phones, regularly get diagnostic x-rays, such as mammograms, and submit to full-body security scans at airports. We worry and debate about the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the safety of nuclear power plants. But how much do we really know about radiation? And what are its actual dangers? An accessible blend of narrative history and science, Strange Glow describes mankind's extraordinary, thorny relationship with radiation, including the hard-won lessons of how radiation helps and harms our health. Timothy Jorgensen explores how our knowledge of and experiences with radiation in the last century can lead us to smarter personal decisions about radiation exposures today. Jorgensen introduces key figures in the story of radiation—from Wilhelm Roentgen, the discoverer of x-rays, and pioneering radioactivity researchers Marie and Pierre Curie, to Thomas Edison and the victims of the recent Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Tracing the most important events in the evolution of radiation, Jorgensen explains exactly what radiation is, how it produces certain health consequences, and how we can protect ourselves from harm. He also considers a range of practical scenarios such as the risks of radon in our basements, radiation levels in the fish we eat, questions about cell-phone use, and radiation's link to cancer. Jorgensen empowers us to make informed choices while offering a clearer understanding of broader societal issues. Investigating radiation's benefits and risks, Strange Glow takes a remarkable look at how, for better or worse, radiation has transformed our society.