Radiation Risks In Perspective

Author: Kenneth L. Mossman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849379789
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Public misperception of radiological risk consistently directs limited resources toward managing minimal or even phantom risks at great cost to government and industry with no measurable benefit to overall public health. The public’s inability to comprehend small theoretical risks arrived at through inherently uncertain formulae, coupled with an irrational push to eliminate all risk with no contextual understanding of overall benefit, results in a forfeiture of valuable advances in technology in favor of an illusion of safety. Radiation Risks in Perspective uses general concepts underlying radiological risk as a model to illuminate the fundamental problems in public perception, reaction, and policy when faced with possible health risks. Presenting three distinct themes, the author summarizes the causes for the failure of the current system and proposes methods for correction. Beginning with a discussion of the methods used to measure threat, the author weighs the nebulous assessment of risk with the use of a quantifiable assessment of hazardous dose, which uses actual numbers that the public can readily understand and that decision makers can confidently use to enact policy and measure success. Secondly, the author addresses the contextual balancing of cost versus benefit when prioritizing expenditure, specifically emphasizing that it is inappropriate to analyze and discuss individual risks without regard to the presence of other risks. Finally, the author analyzes the public’s tendency to push toward zero risk tolerance, an extremist approach that leads to unreasonable restrictions on technologies, excessive regulatory compliance costs, and the ultimate loss of goods and services. With detailed explanations and illustrative case studies, Radiation Risks in Perspective offers scientists, lawyers, engineers, policy makers, and public health professionals, the skills they need for a rational evaluation of risk.

Communicating Risks To The Public

Author: R.E Kasperson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400919522
Size: 63.79 MB
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Risk communication: the evolution of attempts Risk communication is at once a very new and a very old field of interest. Risk analysis, as Krimsky and Plough (1988:2) point out, dates back at least to the Babylonians in 3200 BC. Cultures have traditionally utilized a host of mecha nisms for anticipating, responding to, and communicating about hazards - as in food avoidance, taboos, stigma of persons and places, myths, migration, etc. Throughout history, trade between places has necessitated labelling of containers to indicate their contents. Seals at sites of the ninth century BC Harappan civilization of South Asia record the owner and/or contents of the containers (Hadden, 1986:3). The Pure Food and Drug Act, the first labelling law with national scope in the United States, was passed in 1906. Common law covering the workplace in a number of countries has traditionally required that employers notify workers about significant dangers that they encounter on the job, an obligation formally extended to chronic hazards in the OSHA's Hazard Communication regulation of 1983 in the United States. In this sense, risk communication is probably the oldest way of risk manage ment. However, it is only until recently that risk communication has attracted the attention of regulators as an explicit alternative to the by now more common and formal approaches of standard setting, insuring etc. (Baram, 1982).

Radiation Research A Twentieth Century Perspective

Author: J Champan
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0323146554
Size: 28.59 MB
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Radiation Research, A Twentieth-Century Perspective, Volume I: Congress Abstracts is a collection of abstracts presented at the Ninth International Congress of Radiation Research convened in Toronto, Canada, organized by the Radiation Research Society and the North American Hyperthermia Group at the invitation of the International Association of Radiation Research. The Toronto venue for this congress recognizes a major role by Canadian scientists in the field of radiation research and also the strong participation of Canadian scientists in the North American Radiation Research Society. Original science is shared at these Congresses through Congress lectures, symposia presentations, and proffered papers. The Congress Board of Directors adopted a proposal that all abstracts of scientific presentations should become a permanent record of the official proceedings of the Congress. In a manner somewhat analogous to the Canadian postal code system, each abstract in this volume is identified at the top left hand corner by a code consisting of both letters and numbers printed on three lines. Line one consists of one letter and two numbers that uniquely identify each scientific event. The second line consists of a double digit number that designates the sequence of presentation within the specific scientific event. The third line consists of a double letter code in which the first letter indicates the day of the week on which abstract material is presented and/or discussed, and the second letter indicates a morning or afternoon session.

Exposure Of The American Population To Radioactive Fallout From Nuclear Weapons Tests

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309168465
Size: 61.22 MB
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This report is a review of the draft feasibility study that was issued at the request of Congress by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Over 500 atmospheric nuclear-weapons tests were conducted at various sites around the world during 1945-1980. As public awareness and concern mounted over the possible health hazards associated with exposure to the fallout from weapons testing, a feasibility study was initiated by CDC and NCI to assess the extent of the hazard. The CDC-NCI study claims that the fallout might have led to approximately 11,000 excess deaths, most caused by thyroid cancer linked to exposure to iodine-131. The committee noted that CDC and NCI used the best available data to estimate exposure and health hazards. The committee does not recommend an expanded study of exposure to radionuclides other than 131I since radiation doses from those radionuclides were much lower than those from 131I. It also recommended that CDC urge Congress to prohibit the destruction of all remaining records relevant to fallout.

Radiation Effects In Concrete For Nuclear Power Plants Part Ii

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
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The need to understand and characterize the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete has become urgent because of the possible extension of service life of many nuclear power generating stations. Current knowledge is primarily based on a collection of data obtained in test reactors. These results are inherently difficult to interpret because materials and testing conditions are inconsistent. A micromechanical approach based on the Hashin composite sphere model is presented to derive a first-order separation of the effects of radiation on cement paste and aggregate, and, also, on their interaction. Although the scarcity of available data limits the validation of the model, it appears that, without negating a possible gamma-ray induced effect, the neutron-induced damage and swelling of aggregate plays a predominant role on the overall concrete expansion and the damage of the cement paste. Finally, the radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) effects can also be aided by temperature elevation and shrinkage in the cement paste.

Reliability And Radiation Effects In Compound Semiconductors

Author: Allan Johnston
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814277118
Size: 42.14 MB
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This book focuses on reliability and radiation effects in compound semiconductors, which have evolved rapidly during the last 15 years. It starts with first principles, and shows how advances in device design and manufacturing have suppressed many of the older reliability mechanisms. It is the first book that comprehensively covers reliability and radiation effects in optoelectronic as well as microelectronic devices. It contrasts reliability mechanisms of compound semiconductors with those of silicon-based devices, and shows that the reliability of many compound semiconductors has improved to the level where they can be used for ten years or more with low failure rates.

The Complexity Paradox

Author: Kenneth Mossman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199330360
Size: 51.40 MB
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Living systems exhibit a fundamental contradiction: they are highly stable and reliable, yet they have the capacity to adapt to changing environmental conditions. This paradoxical behavior arises from the complexity of life--a high degree of order and cooperation that emerges from relatively simple interactions among cellular components. The Complexity Paradox proposes inventive, interdisciplinary approaches to maintaining health and managing and preventing disease by considering the totality of human biology, from the cellular level on up to entire populations of individuals. From the perspective of complexity, which acknowledges that there are limits to what we can know, Kenneth L. Mossman opens the door to understanding essential life processes in new and extraordinary ways. By tying together evolution, functional dynamics, and investigations into how the body processes energy and uses genetic information, Mossman's analysis expresses a unified theory of biology that fills a critical niche for future research in biology, medicine, and public health.

Effects Of A Bomb Radiation On The Human Body

Author: Itsuzō Shigematsu
Publisher: Harwood Academic Pub
ISBN:
Size: 12.74 MB
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In recent years, radiation exposure has become a major issue in various parts of the world as the result of nuclear testing and accidents at nuclear power plants such as Chernobyl. In order to help the victims of such events, the "International Council for the" "Health Care of the Radiation-Exposed" was established. This study by the council provides a comprehensive 47-year review of the known radiation-induced health effects on the survivors of the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima, Japan. Included are reports by 39 specialists in the field of radiation medicine encompassing studies on all diseases, cancers, growth and developmental effects associated with radiation exposure. This up-dated information on the medical problems of the A-bomb survivors contributes to a better understanding of radiation-induced disorders in humans.