Precision Interferometry In A New Shape

Author: Paul Fulda
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319013750
Size: 78.30 MB
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With his Ph.D. thesis, presented here in the format of a "Springer Theses", Paul Fulda won the 2012 GWIC thesis prize awarded by the Gravitational Wave International Committee. The impact of thermal noise on future gravitational wave detectors depends on the size and shape of the interrogating laser beam. It had been known since 2006 that, in theory, higher-order Laguerre-Gauss modes could reduce thermal noise. Paul Fulda’s research brings Laguerre-Gauss modes an enormous step forward. His work includes analytical, numerical and experimental work on table-top setups as well as experiments at the Glasgow 10m prototype interferometer. Using numerical simulations the LG33 mode was selected as the optical mode to be tested. Further research by Paul and his colleagues since then concentrated on this mode. Paul has developed and demonstrated simple and effective methods to create this mode with diffractive optics and successfully demonstrated its compatibility with the essential building blocks of gravitational wave detectors, namely, optical cavities, Michelson interferometers and opto-electronic sensing and control systems. Through this work, Laguerre-Gauss modes for interferometers have been transformed from an essentially unknown entity to a well understood option with an experimental basis.

Laser Physics At The Limits

Author: Hartmut Figger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662048973
Size: 78.31 MB
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Published on the occasion of Theodor Hänsch's 60th Birthday emphasis is placed on precision related to results in a variety of fields, such as atomic clocks, frequency standards, and the measurement of physical constants in atomic physics. Furthermore, illustrations and engineering applications of the fundamentals of quantum mechanics are widely covered. It has contributions by Nobel prize winners Norman F. Ramsey, Steven Chu, and Carl E. Wieman.

Quantum Opto Mechanics With Micromirrors

Author: Simon Gröblacher
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642349552
Size: 32.63 MB
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Quantum effects in macroscopic systems have long been a fascination for researchers. Over the past decade mechanical oscillators have emerged as a leading system of choice for many such experiments. The work reported in this thesis investigates the effects of the radiation-pressure force of light on macroscopic mechanical structures. The basic system studied is a mechanical oscillator that is highly reflective and part of an optical resonator. It interacts with the optical cavity mode via the radiation-pressure force. Both the dynamics of the mechanical oscillation and the properties of the light field are modified through this interaction. The experiments use quantum optical tools (such as homodyning and down-conversion) with the goal of ultimately showing quantum behavior of the mechanical center of mass motion. Of particular value are the detailed descriptions of several novel experiments that pave the way towards this goal and are already shaping the field of quantum optomechanics, in particular optomechanical laser cooling and strong optomechanical coupling.

Advanced Interferometers And The Search For Gravitational Waves

Author: Massimo Bassan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319037927
Size: 79.59 MB
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The search for gravitational radiation with optical interferometers is gaining momentum worldwide. Beside the VIRGO and GEO gravitational wave observatories in Europe and the two LIGOs in the United States, which have operated successfully during the past decade, further observatories are being completed (KAGRA in Japan) or planned (ILIGO in India). The sensitivity of the current observatories, although spectacular, has not allowed direct discovery of gravitational waves. The advanced detectors (Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo) at present in the development phase will improve sensitivity by a factor of 10, probing the universe up to 200 Mpc for signal from inspiraling binary compact stars. This book covers all experimental aspects of the search for gravitational radiation with optical interferometers. Every facet of the technological development underlying the evolution of advanced interferometers is thoroughly described, from configuration to optics and coatings and from thermal compensation to suspensions and controls. All key ingredients of an advanced detector are covered, including the solutions implemented in first-generation detectors, their limitations, and how to overcome them. Each issue is addressed with special reference to the solution adopted for Advanced VIRGO but constant attention is also paid to other strategies, in particular those chosen for Advanced LIGO.

Optics In Our Time

Author: Mohammad D. Al-Amri
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319319035
Size: 39.93 MB
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Light and light based technologies have played an important role in transforming our lives via scientific contributions spanned over thousands of years. In this book we present a vast collection of articles on various aspects of light and its applications in the contemporary world at a popular or semi-popular level. These articles are written by the world authorities in their respective fields. This is therefore a rare volume where the world experts have come together to present the developments in this most important field of science in an almost pedagogical manner. This volume covers five aspects related to light. The first presents two articles, one on the history of the nature of light, and the other on the scientific achievements of Ibn-Haitham (Alhazen), who is broadly considered the father of modern optics. These are then followed by an article on ultrafast phenomena and the invisible world. The third part includes papers on specific sources of light, the discoveries of which have revolutionized optical technologies in our lifetime. They discuss the nature and the characteristics of lasers, Solid-state lighting based on the Light Emitting Diode (LED) technology, and finally modern electron optics and its relationship to the Muslim golden age in science. The book’s fourth part discusses various applications of optics and light in today's world, including biophotonics, art, optical communication, nanotechnology, the eye as an optical instrument, remote sensing, and optics in medicine. In turn, the last part focuses on quantum optics, a modern field that grew out of the interaction of light and matter. Topics addressed include atom optics, slow, stored and stationary light, optical tests of the foundation of physics, quantum mechanical properties of light fields carrying orbital angular momentum, quantum communication, and Wave-Particle dualism in action. “/p>

Gravitational Lensing An Astrophysical Tool

Author: Frederic Courbin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540458573
Size: 21.79 MB
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Gravitational lensing is by now sufficiently well understood that it can be used as a tool of investigation in other astrophysical areas. Applications include the determination of the Hubble constant, probing the dark matter context of galaxies and the mapping of the universe to the identification of otherwise invisible large-scale structures. Each chapter of the book covers in a self-contained manner a subfield of gravitational lensing, with the double aim of describing in a simple way the basics of the theory and of reviewing the most recent developments as well as applications foreseen in the near future. The book will thus be particularly useful as a high-level textbook for nonspecialist researchers and advanced students wishing to become familiar with the field all the way up to the forefront of research.

New Directions In Atomic Physics

Author: C.T. Whelan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306461811
Size: 23.64 MB
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The last few years have seen some remarkable advances in the understanding of atomic phenomena. It is now possible to isolate atomic systems in traps, measure in coincidence the fragments of collision processes, routinely produce, and study multicharged ions. One can look at bulk matter in such a way that the fundamental atomic character is clearly evident and work has begun to tease out the properties of anti matter. The papers in this book reflect many aspects of modem Atomic Physics. They correspond to the invited talks at a conference dedicated to the study of "New Directions in Atomic Physics," which took place in Magdalene College, Cambridge in July of 1998. The meeting was designed as a way of taking stock of what has been achieved and, it was hoped, as a means of stimulating new research in new areas, along new lines. Consequently, an effort was made to touch on as many directions as we could in the four days of the meeting. We included some talks which overviewed whole subfields, as well as quite a large number of research contributions. There is a unity to Physics and we tried to avoid any artificial division between theory and experiment. We had roughly the same number of talks from those who are primarily concerned with making measurements, and from those who spend their lives trying to develop the theory to describe the experiments.

Nano Optics Principles Enabling Basic Research And Applications

Author: Baldassare Di Bartolo
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9402408509
Size: 24.48 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of nano-optics, including basic theory, experiment and applications, particularly in nanofabrication and optical characterization. The contributions clearly demonstrate how advances in nano-optics and photonics have stimulated progress in nanoscience and -fabrication, and vice versa. Their expert authors address topics such as three-dimensional optical lithography and microscopy beyond the Abbe diffraction limit, optical diagnostics and sensing, optical data- and telecommunications, energy-efficient lighting, and efficient solar energy conversion. Nano-optics emerges as a key enabling technology of the 21st century. This work will appeal to a wide readership, from physics through chemistry, to biology and engineering. The contributions that appear in this volume were presented at a NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Erice, 4-19 July, 2015.

The Detection Of Gravitational Waves

Author: David G. Blair
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521021029
Size: 47.21 MB
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In this 1991 text leading scientists in the field provide an art account of the physics and technology of gravitational wave detection.

Fundamentals Of Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors Second Edition

Author: Saulson Peter R
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813146206
Size: 26.14 MB
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LIGO's recent discovery of gravitational waves was headline news around the world. Many people will want to understand more about what a gravitational wave is, how LIGO works, and how LIGO functions as a detector of gravitational waves.This book aims to communicate the basic logic of interferometric gravitational wave detectors to students who are new to the field. It assumes that the reader has a basic knowledge of physics, but no special familiarity with gravitational waves, with general relativity, or with the special techniques of experimental physics. All of the necessary ideas are developed in the book.The first edition was published in 1994. Since the book is aimed at explaining the physical ideas behind the design of LIGO, it stands the test of time. For the second edition, an Epilogue has been added; it brings the treatment of technical details up to date, and provides references that would allow a student to become proficient with today's designs.