Population Matters Demographic Change Economic Growth And Poverty In The Developing World

Author: Nancy Birdsall
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191529535
Size: 27.12 MB
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The effect of demography on economic performance has been the subject of intense debate in economics for nearly two centuries. In recent years opinion has swung between the Malthusian views of Coale and Hoover, and the cornucopian views of Julian Simon. Unfortunately, until recently, data were too weak and analytical models too limited to provide clear insights into the relationship. As a result, economists as a group have not been clear or conclusive. This volume, which is based on a collection of papers that heavily rely on data from the 1980s and 1990s and on new analytical approaches, sheds important new light on demographic--economic relationships, and it provides clearer policy conclusions than any recent work on the subject. In particular, evidence from developing countries throughout the world shows a pattern in recent decades that was not evident earlier: countries with higher rates of population growth have tended to see less economic growth. An analysis of the role of demography in the "Asian economic miracle" strongly suggests that changes in age structures resulting from declining fertility create a one-time "demographic gift" or window of opportunity, when the working age population has relatively few dependants, of either young or old age, to support. Countries which recognize and seize on this opportunity can, as the Asian tigers did, realize healthy bursts in economic output. But such results are by no means assured: only for countries with otherwise sound economic policies will the window of opportunity yield such dramatic results. Finally, several of the studies demonstrate the likelihood of a causal relationship between high fertility and poverty. While the direction of causality is not always clear and very likely is reciprocal (poverty contributes to high fertility and high fertility reinforces poverty), the studies support the view that lower fertility at the country level helps create a path out of poverty for many families. Population Matters represents an important further step in our understanding of the contribution of population change to economic performance. As such, it will be a useful volume for policymakers both in developing countries and in international development agencies.

Population Matters

Author: Nancy Birdsall
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199244073
Size: 74.88 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The effect of demography on economic performance has been the subject of intense debate in economics for nearly two centuries. In recent years opinion has swung between the Malthusian views of Coale and Hoover, and the cornucopian views of Julian Simon. Unfortunately, until recently, data were too weak and analytical models too limited to provide clear insights into the relationship. As a result, economists as a group have not been clear or conclusive. This volume, which is based on acollection of papers that heavily rely on data from the 1980s and 1990s and on new analytical approaches, sheds important new light on demographic - economic relationships, and it provides clearer policy conclusions than any recent work on the subject. In particular, evidence from developing countries throughout the world shows a pattern in recent decades that was not evident earlier: countries with higher rates of population growth have tended to see less economic growth. An analysis of the role of demography in the "Asian economic miracle" strongly suggests that changes in age structures resulting from declining fertility create a one-time "demographic gift" or window of opportunity, when the working age population has relatively few dependants, of either young or old age, to support. Countries which recognize and seize on this opportunity can, as the Asian tigers did, realize healthy bursts in economic output. But such results are by no means assured: only for countries with otherwise sound economic policies will the window of opportunity yield such dramatic results. Finally, several of the studies demonstrate the likelihood of a causal relationship between high fertility and poverty. While the direction of causality is not always clear and very likely is reciprocal (poverty contributes to high fertility and high fertility reinforces poverty), the studies support the view that lower fertility at the country level helps create a path out of poverty for many families.Population Matters represents an important further step in our understanding of the contribution of population change to economic performance. As such, it will be a useful volume for policymakers both in developing countries and in international development agencies.

Population Matters

Author: Nancy Birdsall
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780199261864
Size: 36.94 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 5722
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The effect of demography on economic performance has been the subject of intense debate in economics for nearly two centuries. In recent years opinion has swung between the Malthusian views of Coale and Hoover, and the cornucopian views of Julian Simon. Unfortunately, until recently, data were too weak and analytical models too limited to provide clear insights into the relationship. As a result economists as a group have not been clear or conclusive. This volume, based on a collectionof papers that heavily rely on data from the 1980s and 1990s and on new analytical approaches, sheds important new light on demographic-economic relationships, and it provides clearer policy conclusions than any recent work on the subject. In particular, evidence from developing countries throughout the world shows a much clearer pattern in recent decades than was evident earlier: countries with higher rates of population growth have tended to see less economic growth. An analysis of the roleof demography in the "Asian economic miracle" strongly suggests that changes in age structures resulting from declining fertility create a one-time "demographic gift" or window of opportunity, when the working age population has relatively few dependants, of either young or old age, to support. Countries which recognize and seize on this opportunity can, as the Asian tigers did, realize healthy bursts in economic output. But such results are by no means assured: only for countries with otherwise sound economic policies will the window of opportunity yield such dramatic results. Finally, several of the studies demonstrate the likelihood of a causal relationship between high fertility and poverty. While the direction of causality is not always clear and very likely is reciprocal (poverty contributes to high fertility and high fertility reinforces poverty), the studies support the view that lower fertility at the country level helps create a path out of poverty for many families. Population Matters represents an important further step in our understanding of the contribution of population change to economic performance. As such, it will be a useful volume for policymakers both in developing countries and in international development agencies.

The Demographic Dividend

Author: David Bloom
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833033735
Size: 41.94 MB
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There is long-standing debate on how population growth affects national economies. A new report from Population Matters examines the history of this debate and synthesizes current research on the topic. The authors, led by Harvard economist David Bloom, conclude that population age structure, more than size or growth per se, affects economic development, and that reducing high fertility can create opportunities for economic growth if the right kinds of educational, health, and labor-market policies are in place. The report also examines specific regions of the world and how their differing policy environments have affected the relationship between population change and economic development.

Population And Development

Author: Tim Dyson
Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
ISBN: 1848139136
Size: 52.68 MB
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The demographic transition and its related effects of population growth, fertility decline and ageing populations are fraught with controversy. When discussed in relation to the global south and the modern project of development, the questions and answers become more problematic. Population and Development offers an expert guide on the demographic transition, from its origins in Enlightenment Europe through to the rest of the world. Tim Dyson examines how, while the phenomenon continues to cause unsustainable population growth with serious economic and environmental implications, its processes have underlain previous periods of sustained economic growth, helped to liberate women from the domestic domain, and contributed greatly to the rise of modern democracy. This accessible yet scholarly analysis will enable any student or expert in development studies to understand complex and vital demographic theory.

Population And Development

Author: Tim Dyson
Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
ISBN: 1848139136
Size: 29.15 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The demographic transition and its related effects of population growth, fertility decline and ageing populations are fraught with controversy. When discussed in relation to the global south and the modern project of development, the questions and answers become more problematic. Population and Development offers an expert guide on the demographic transition, from its origins in Enlightenment Europe through to the rest of the world. Tim Dyson examines how, while the phenomenon continues to cause unsustainable population growth with serious economic and environmental implications, its processes have underlain previous periods of sustained economic growth, helped to liberate women from the domestic domain, and contributed greatly to the rise of modern democracy. This accessible yet scholarly analysis will enable any student or expert in development studies to understand complex and vital demographic theory.

The Environmental Implications Of Population Dynamics

Author: Lori M. Hunter
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 9780833043689
Size: 27.52 MB
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The globe is now inhabited by 6 billion people, twice as many as in 1960. Understanding the effects this population growth has on the environment will be paramount in developing policies that will mitigate the negative environmental effects. This report discusses the relationship between population and environmental change, the forces that mediate this relationship, and how population dynamics specifically affect climate change and land-use change. The author outlines both sides of the policy debate that have emerged--those who would limit fertility and population growth in the developing world and those who call for reduced consumption in the developed world. She concludes by calling for policymakers to pay increased attention to the role of population and forsake the search for one-step solutions to environmental problems.

Cities Transformed

Author: Panel on Urban Population Dynamics
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309088623
Size: 23.85 MB
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Virtually all of the growth in the world's population for the foreseeable future will take place in the cities and towns of the developing world. Over the next twenty years, most developing countries will for the first time become more urban than rural. The benefits from urbanization cannot be overlooked, but the speed and sheer scale of this transformation present many challenges. A new cast of policy makers is emerging to take up the many responsibilities of urban governance-as many national governments decentralize and devolve their functions, programs in poverty, health, education, and public services are increasingly being deposited in the hands of untested municipal and regional governments. Demographers have been surprisingly slow to devote attention to the implications of the urban transformation. Drawing from a wide variety of data sources, many of them previously inaccessible, Cities Transformed explores the implications of various urban contexts for marriage, fertility, health, schooling, and children's lives. It should be of interest to all involved in city-level research, policy, planning, and investment decisions.

The Economic Consequences Of Demographic Change In East Asia

Author: Takatoshi Ito
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226386880
Size: 42.44 MB
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Recent studies show that almost all industrial countries have experienced dramatic decreases in both fertility and mortality rates. This situation has led to aging societies with economies that suffer from both a decline in the working population and a rise in fiscal deficits linked to increased government spending. East Asia exemplifies these trends, and this volume offers an in-depth look at how long-term demographic transitions have taken shape there and how they have affected the economy in the region. The Economic Consequences of Demographic Change in East Asia assembles a group of experts to explore such topics as comparative demographic change, population aging, the rising cost of health care, and specific policy concerns in individual countries. The volume provides an overview of economic growth in East Asia as well as more specific studies on Japan, Korea, China, and Hong Kong. Offering important insights into the causes and consequences of this transition, this book will benefit students, researchers, and policy makers focused on East Asia as well as anyone concerned with similar trends elsewhere in the world.

International Handbook Of Development Economics

Author: Amitava Krishna Dutt
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1848442815
Size: 22.74 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The essays are concise, yet comprehensive, and each essay contains a substantial set of references, which an interested researcher or student could follow up. . . In addition to representing multidisciplinary interactions, this collection encompasses several different perspectives within development economics, so the reader can learn, for example, both about neoclassical approaches and dependency theories in the same volume. This makes the collection unique and all the more valuable. . . This is a very good reference collection, as the individual essays are informative and provide a good overall perspective on the topic that they set out to address. The extensive bibliography at the end of each essay adds further value to this collection. Ashwini Deshpande, Economic and Political Weekly These new volumes impress along two dimensions. First, they highlight important connections between economic development and variables such as culture, warfare, and ethnicity, which are sometimes ignored by mainstream economists. Second, they analyze the economic development experience of different regions such as Africa, Latin America, and East Asia. . . a valuable reference for scholars and practitioners in the field. Highly recommended. H.A. Faruq, Choice This two-volume original reference work provides a comprehensive overview of development economics and comprises contributions by some of the leading scholars working in the field. Authors are drawn from around the world and write on a wide range of topics. After providing an introduction to the subject (by examining issues like the meaning and measurement of development, historical and interdisciplinary approaches, empirical regularities and data problems), the contributors provide a wealth of perspectives on, and analyses of, development economics. They discuss alternative approaches to development, the macroeconomics of growth, factors and sources of economic development (such as capital, labor, entrepreneurship, resources and technology), major sectors of concern (such as agriculture, industry, services and the informal sector) and international issues (such as trade, capital and labor flows and technology transfers). Income distribution and poverty, the state and other institutions, and actual development experiences are explored. The contributors provide analytical contributions, as well as the relation between these contributions and real world and policy issues from a variety of alternative perspectives. Scholars, students, policymakers and other development practitioners will all find this comprehensive reference invaluable.