To Intermix With Our White Brothers

Author: Thomas N. Ingersoll
Publisher: UNM Press
ISBN: 9780826332875
Size: 65.11 MB
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"I think that I or any of my brethren have a right to choose a wife for themselves as well as the whites, and as the whites have taken the liberty to choose my brethren, the Indians, hundreds of thousands of them, as partners in life, I believe the Indians have as much right to choose their partners among the whites if they wish."--William Apess,An Indian's Looking-Glass for the White Man, 1833 In this groundbreaking study, Thomas Ingersoll argues the Jacksonian American Indian removal policy appealed to popular racial prejudice against all Indians, including special suspicion of mixed bloods. Lawmakers also perceived a threat to white Americans' transatlantic reputation posed by the potential for general racial mixture, or "amalgamation." Beginning in the 1780s, and for the ensuing half-century, alarmed government officials attempted to separate full blood and mixed-blood Indians into enclaves in the Far West, to isolate them from white migrants out of the eastern states and prevent the rise of a new, genuinely alternative mixed society. Ingersoll begins by examining the origins and early history of mixed bloods in North America. He follows with the lives of individual mixed bloods, an exploration of how the growing mixed population informed racial thought in the Early National Period, and the role of mixed-blood chiefs in opposing the Indian Removal Act of 1830.

Fur Fortune And Empire The Epic History Of The Fur Trade In America

Author: Eric Jay Dolin
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393079244
Size: 35.53 MB
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A Seattle Times selection for one of Best Non-Fiction Books of 2010 Winner of the New England Historial Association's 2010 James P. Hanlan Award Winner of the Outdoor Writers Association of America 2011 Excellence in Craft Award, Book Division, First Place "A compelling and well-annotated tale of greed, slaughter and geopolitics." —Los Angeles Times As Henry Hudson sailed up the broad river that would one day bear his name, he grew concerned that his Dutch patrons would be disappointed in his failure to find the fabled route to the Orient. What became immediately apparent, however, from the Indians clad in deer skins and "good furs" was that Hudson had discovered something just as tantalizing. The news of Hudson's 1609 voyage to America ignited a fierce competition to lay claim to this uncharted continent, teeming with untapped natural resources. The result was the creation of an American fur trade, which fostered economic rivalries and fueled wars among the European powers, and later between the United States and Great Britain, as North America became a battleground for colonization and imperial aspirations. In Fur, Fortune, and Empire, best-selling author Eric Jay Dolin chronicles the rise and fall of the fur trade of old, when the rallying cry was "get the furs while they last." Beavers, sea otters, and buffalos were slaughtered, used for their precious pelts that were tailored into extravagant hats, coats, and sleigh blankets. To read Fur, Fortune, and Empire then is to understand how North America was explored, exploited, and settled, while its native Indians were alternately enriched and exploited by the trade. As Dolin demonstrates, fur, both an economic elixir and an agent of destruction, became inextricably linked to many key events in American history, including the French and Indian War, the American Revolution, and the War of 1812, as well as to the relentless pull of Manifest Destiny and the opening of the West. This work provides an international cast beyond the scope of any Hollywood epic, including Thomas Morton, the rabble-rouser who infuriated the Pilgrims by trading guns with the Indians; British explorer Captain James Cook, whose discovery in the Pacific Northwest helped launch America's China trade; Thomas Jefferson who dreamed of expanding the fur trade beyond the Mississippi; America's first multimillionaire John Jacob Astor, who built a fortune on a foundation of fur; and intrepid mountain men such as Kit Carson and Jedediah Smith, who sliced their way through an awe inspiring and unforgiving landscape, leaving behind a mythic legacy still resonates today. Concluding with the virtual extinction of the buffalo in the late 1800s, Fur, Fortune, and Empire is an epic history that brings to vivid life three hundred years of the American experience, conclusively demonstrating that the fur trade played a seminal role in creating the nation we are today.

People Of The Wind River

Author: Henry Edwin Stamm
Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
ISBN: 9780806131757
Size: 20.92 MB
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People of the Wind River, the first book-length history of the Eastern Shoshones, tells the tribe's story through eight tumultuous decades -- from 1825, when they reached mutual accommodation with the first permanent white settlers in Wind River country, to 1900, when the death of Chief Washakie marked a final break with their traditional lives as nineteenth-century Plains Indians. Henry E. Stamm, IV, draws on extensive research in primary documents, including Indian agency records, letters, newspapers, church archives, and tax accounts, and on interviews with descendants of early Shoshone leaders. He describes the creation of the Eastern political division of the tribe and its migration from the Great Basin to the High Plains of present-day Wyoming, the gift of the Sun Dance and its place in Shoshone life, and the coming of the Arapahoes. Without losing the Shoshone perspective, Stamm also considers the development and implementation of the federal Peace Policy. Generally friendly to whites, the Shoshones accepted the arrival of Mormons, miners, trappers, traders, and settlers and tried for years to maintain a buffalo-hunting culture while living on the Wind River Reservation. Stamm shows how the tribe endured poor reservation management and describes whites' attempts to "civilize" them. After 1885, with the buffalo gone and cattle herds growing, the Eastern Shoshone struggled with starvation, disease, and governmental neglect, entering the twentieth century with only a shadow of the economic power they once possessed, but still secure in their spiritual traditions.

Nine Years Among The Indians 1870 1879

Author: Herman Lehmann
Publisher: UNM Press
ISBN: 9780826314178
Size: 30.27 MB
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Provides an account of the author's experiences as a captive of the Mescalero Apaches, telling of his training to become a warrior, his exile after killing a medicine man in self-defense, and his return home.

Brules

Author: Harry Combs
Publisher: Island Books
ISBN: 0440217288
Size: 23.18 MB
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Cat Brules, whose life embraces the short, turbulent history of the American West, seeks revenge against the entire Comanche nation, finds love with a Shoshone woman, and must chose between becoming an outlaw or a hero. Reprint.