Applied Epidemiology And Biostatistics

Author: Giuseppe La Torre
Publisher: SEEd
ISBN: 9788889688564
Size: 62.11 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 6407
Download
This book provides not only the theory of biostatistics, but also the opportunity of applying it in practice. In fact, each chapter presents one or more specific examples on how to perform an epidemiological or statistical data analysis and includes download access to the software and databases, giving the reader the possibility of replicating the analyses described.

Small Clinical Trials

Author: Committee on Strategies for Small-Number-Participant Clinical Research Trials
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309073332
Size: 30.51 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 5482
Download
Clinical trials are used to elucidate the most appropriate preventive, diagnostic, or treatment options for individuals with a given medical condition. Perhaps the most essential feature of a clinical trial is that it aims to use results based on a limited sample of research participants to see if the intervention is safe and effective or if it is comparable to a comparison treatment. Sample size is a crucial component of any clinical trial. A trial with a small number of research participants is more prone to variability and carries a considerable risk of failing to demonstrate the effectiveness of a given intervention when one really is present. This may occur in phase I (safety and pharmacologic profiles), II (pilot efficacy evaluation), and III (extensive assessment of safety and efficacy) trials. Although phase I and II studies may have smaller sample sizes, they usually have adequate statistical power, which is the committee's definition of a "large" trial. Sometimes a trial with eight participants may have adequate statistical power, statistical power being the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the hypothesis is false. Small Clinical Trials assesses the current methodologies and the appropriate situations for the conduct of clinical trials with small sample sizes. This report assesses the published literature on various strategies such as (1) meta-analysis to combine disparate information from several studies including Bayesian techniques as in the confidence profile method and (2) other alternatives such as assessing therapeutic results in a single treated population (e.g., astronauts) by sequentially measuring whether the intervention is falling above or below a preestablished probability outcome range and meeting predesigned specifications as opposed to incremental improvement.

Multivariate Methods In Epidemiology

Author: Theodore R. Holford
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199747764
Size: 14.28 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 1662
Download
The basis for much of medical public health practice comes from epidemiological research. This text describes current statistical tools that are used to analyze the association between possible risk factors and the actual risk of disease. Beginning with a broad conceptual framework on the disease process, it describes commonly used techniques for analyzing proportions and disease rates. These are then extended to model fitting, and the common threads of logic that bind the two analytic strategies together are revealed. Each chapter provides a descriptive rationale for the method, a worked example using data from a published study, and an exercise that allows the reader to practice the technique. Each chapter also includes an appendix that provides further details on the theoretical underpinnings of the method. Among the topics covered are Mantel-Haenszel methods, rates, survival analysis, logistic regression, and generalized linear models. Methods for incorporating aspects of study design, such as matching, into the analysis are discussed, and guidance is given for determining the power or the sample size requirements of a study. This text will give readers a foundation in applied statistics and the concepts of model fitting to develop skills in the analysis of epidemiological data.

The Case Control Method

Author: Haroutune Armenian M.D.
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199720207
Size: 80.37 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
View: 4209
Download
Over the past fifty years, the case-control method, and to a lesser extent its case-based variants, have become the most important tools for the investigator of health problems. The case control method is the study of persons with the disease and a suitable control group of persons who do not have the disease. The book helps readers address a number of general and specific questions dealing with the case-control and other case-based methods, including questions of how to design and implement a case-control study that minimizes biases, how to analyze the data to appropriately deal with confounding variables and help identify reactions, and how to interpret data and present the results from a case-control study.

Textbook Of Cancer Epidemiology

Author: Hans-Olov Adami
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195109694
Size: 28.82 MB
Format: PDF
View: 2596
Download
This text offers an overview of the epidemiology and primary prevention for most forms of human cancer. It summarizes concepts and methods of epidemiology, the biology of cancer, cancer genetics, and the emerging potential of biomarkers and it reviews specific cancer sites.

Basic Epidemiology

Author: R. Bonita
Publisher: World Health Organization
ISBN: 9241547073
Size: 79.47 MB
Format: PDF
View: 2399
Download
Basic epidemiology provides an introduction to the core principles and methods of epidemiology, with a special emphasis on public health applications in developing countries. This edition includes chapters on the nature and uses of epidemiology; the epidemiological approach to defining and measuring the occurrence of health-related states in populations; the strengths and limitations of epidemiological study designs; and the role of epidemiology in evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of health care. The book has a particular emphasis on modifiable environmental factors and encourages the application of epidemiology to the prevention of disease and the promotion of health, including environmental and occupational health.

Practical Statistics For Medical Research

Author: Douglas G. Altman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780412276309
Size: 68.22 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 3810
Download
Most medical researchers, whether clinical or non-clinical, receive some background in statistics as undergraduates. However, it is most often brief, a long time ago, and largely forgotten by the time it is needed. Furthermore, many introductory texts fall short of adequately explaining the underlying concepts of statistics, and often are divorced from the reality of conducting and assessing medical research. Practical Statistics for Medical Research is a problem-based text for medical researchers, medical students, and others in the medical arena who need to use statistics but have no specialized mathematics background. The author draws on twenty years of experience as a consulting medical statistician to provide clear explanations to key statistical concepts, with a firm emphasis on practical aspects of designing and analyzing medical research. The text gives special attention to the presentation and interpretation of results and the many real problems that arise in medical research.

Epidemiology

Author: Moyses Szklo
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
ISBN: 1449604692
Size: 65.65 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 2550
Download
This book is specifically designed to expand reader knowledge while avoiding complex statistical formulations. Emphasizing the quantitative issues of epidemiology, this book focuses on study design, measures of association, interaction, research assessment, and other methods and practice. The Second Edition takes readers who have a good understanding of basic epidemiological principles through more rigorous discussions of concepts and methods.