Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes

Author: Yaoliang Tang
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128004975
Size: 60.75 MB
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Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes are at the forefront of research in two of the most high profile and funded scientific areas – cardiovascular research and stem cells. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes provides insight into the biofunction and molecular mechanisms, practical tools for research, and a look toward the clinical applications of this exciting phenomenon which is emerging as an effective diagnostic. Primarily focused on the cardiovascular applications where there have been the greatest advancements toward the clinic, this is the first compendium for clinical and biomedical researchers who are interested in integrating MSC-derived exosomes as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Introduces the MSC-exosome mediated cell-cell communication Covers the major functional benefits in current MSC-derived exosome studies Discusses strategies for the use of MSC-derived exosomes in cardiovascular therapies

Exosomes Stem Cells And Microrna

Author: Karl L. Mettinger
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319744704
Size: 33.93 MB
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This volume provides insight into the pivotal roles of stem cells, exosomes and other microvesicles in biofunction and molecular mechanisms and their therapeutic potential in translational nanomedicine. It further highlights evidence from recent studies as to how stem cell derived exosomes and microRNAs may restore and maintain tissue homeostasis, enable cells to recover critical cellular functions and begin repair regeneration. These early studies in animal models of aging also show evidence of improved immune, cardiovascular and cognitive functions as well as improved health span and life span. The use of exosomes from body fluids to define specific biomarkers for various tumors may also clear the path to patient-targeted treatments by developing exosome-derived microRNA based cancer therapeutics. It is essential reading for graduate students, research fellow and biomedical researchers in academia or the pharmaceutical or biotech industries.

Exosomes And Microvesicles

Author: Andrew F. Hill
Publisher: Humana Press
ISBN: 9781493967261
Size: 70.67 MB
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This volume covers methods for the analysis of extracellular vesicles (EV) that can be applied to isolated EVs from a wide variety of sources. This includes the use of electron microscopy, tunable resistance pulse sensing, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. The chapters in this book discuss EV cargoes containing proteins and genomic materials using a number of different approaches, and isolating EVs from platelets and neuronal cells and tissues. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Practical and comprehensive, Exosomes and Microvesicles: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource containing methodologies for anyone interested in researching EVs.

Stem Cells And Progenitor Cells In Ischemic Stroke Fashion Or Future

Author: Thorsten R. Doeppner
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889197247
Size: 67.51 MB
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Stroke remains one of the most devastating diseases in industrialized countries. Recanalization of the occluded arterial vessel using thrombolysis is the only causal therapy available. However, thrombolysis is limited due to severe side effects and a limited time window. As such, only a minority of patients receives this kind of therapy, showing a need for new and innovative treatment strategies. Although neuroprotective drugs have been shown to be beneficial in a variety of experimental stroke models, they ultimately failed in clinical trials. Consequently, recent scientific focus has been put on modulation of post-ischemic neuroregeneration, either via stimulation of endogenous neurogenesis or via application of exogenous stem cells or progenitor cells. Neurogenesis persists within the adult brain of both rodents and primates. As such, neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are found within distinct niches like the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Cerebral ischemia stimulates these astrocyte-like progenitor cells, upon which NPCs proliferate and migrate towards the site of lesion. There, NPCs partly differentiate into mature neurons, without significantly being integrated into the residing neural network. Rather, the majority of new-born cells dies within the first weeks post-stroke, leaving post-ischemic neurogenesis a phenomenon of unknown biological significance. Since NPCs do not replace lost brain tissue, beneficial effects observed in some studies after either stimulated or protected neurogenesis are generally contributed to indirect effects of these new-born cells. The precise identification of appropriated cellular mediators, however, is still elusive. How do these mediators work? Are they soluble factors or maybe even vesicular structures emanating from NPCs? What are the cues that guide NPCs towards the ischemic lesion site? How can post-ischemic neurogenesis be stimulated? How can the poor survival of NPCs be increased? In order to support post-ischemic neurogenesis, a variety of research groups have focused on application of exogenous stem/progenitor cells from various tissue sources. Among these, cultivated NPCs from the SVZ and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the bone marrow are frequently administered after induction of stroke. Although neuroprotection after delivery of stem/progenitor cells has been shown in various experimental stroke models, transplanted cells are usually not integrated in the neural network. Again, the vast amount of grafted cells dies or does not reach its target despite profound neuroprotection, also suggesting indirect paracrine effects as the cause of neuroprotection. Yet, the factors being responsible for these observations are under debate and still have to be addressed. Is there any “optimal” cell type for transplantation? How can the resistance of grafted cells against a non-favorable extracellular milieu be increased? What are the molecules that are vital for interaction between grafted cells and endogenous NPCs? The present research topic seeks to answer - at least in part - some of the aforementioned questions. Although the research topic predominantly focuses on experimental studies (and reviews alike), a current outlook towards clinical relevance is given as well.

Regenerative Medicine Laboratory To Clinic

Author: Asok Mukhopadhyay
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811037019
Size: 19.20 MB
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This book discusses the two different cellular approaches that are pursued in regenerative medicine: cell therapy and tissue engineering. It examines in detail the therapeutic application of hematopoietic stem cells in marrow regeneration, multi-potent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also referred to as mesenchymal stromal cells. The interest in MSCs can be seen in more than 150 clinical trials, some of which have progressed to Phase III, despite the cells’ limited differentiation potential. The book also explores how embryonic stem (ES) cells, being pluripotent in nature, can resolve some of the problems associated with adult stem cells, yet entail other challenges like risks of teratoma formation and immune rejection. A separate chapter deals with the role of noncoding RNAs in neuronal commitment of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Chapters like “Cord blood banking in India and the global scenario”; “3D bioprinting of tissue” and others will make this book an extremely interesting read for all students, researchers and clinicians working in the area of regenerative medicine/stem cells. The book is broadly divided into two parts, the first of which is devoted to basic information on stem cells, and the second of which addresses potential clinical applications in the areas of hematology, cardiology, orthopedic and immune suppression, etc.

Neuroimmune Pharmacology

Author: Tsuneya Ikezu
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319440225
Size: 34.34 MB
Format: PDF
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The second edition of Neuroimmune Pharmacology bridges the disciplines of neuroscience, immunology and pharmacology from the molecular to clinical levels with particular thought made to engage new research directives and clinical modalities. Bringing together the foremost field authorities from around the world, Neuroimmune Pharmacology will serve as an invaluable resource for the basic and applied scientists of the current decade and beyond.

Engineering Mineralized And Load Bearing Tissues

Author: Luiz E. Bertassoni
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319223453
Size: 24.46 MB
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This book offers a comprehensive overview of current challenges and strategies to regenerate load-bearing and calcified human tissues, including bone, cartilage,tendon, ligaments and dental structures (dentin, enamel, cementum and periodontal ligament). Tissue engineering has long held great promises as an improved treatment option for conditions affecting mineralized and load-bearing structures in the body. Although significant progress has been achieved in recent years, a number of challenges still exist. Scaffold vascularization, new biofabrication methods (3D printing, lithography, microfabrication), peptide conjugation methods, interface engineering, scaffold mechanical properties, iPS cells, organs-on-a-chip, are some of the topics discussed in this book. More specially, in the first section readers will find an overview of emerging biofabrication methods. In section 2, applied strategies for regeneration of (2.1) bone, cartilage and ligament, as well as (2.2) dentin, cementum, enamel and periodontal ligament are discussed across 14 chapters. While other volumes have addressed the regeneration of individual tissues, or exclusively focused on different regenerative strategies, the focus of this work is to bring together researchers integrating backgrounds in materials sciences, engineering, biology, mechanics, fluidics, etc, to address specific challenges common to regeneration of several load-bearing and calcified tissues. Therefore, this book provides a unique platform to stimulate progress in the regeneration of functional tissue substitutes. We envision that this book will represent a valuable reference source for university and college faculties, post‐doctoral research fellows, senior graduate students, and researchers from R&D laboratories in their endeavors to fabricate biomimetic load bearing tissues.

The Giant Vesicle Book

Author: Rumiana Dimova
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781498752176
Size: 69.40 MB
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Giant vesicles are being widely used as a model membrane system, both for basic biological systems and for their promising applications in the development of smart materials, in particular for drug delivery, as well as use in driving new technologies for the cosmetics industry. This practical manual gives the reader a toolbox for starting work with giant vesicles, including expert's tips on proper preparation methods, measurement, and characterization methods. The contents build from a simple model to use of vesicles as advanced membrane and cell system models. It also includes fundamentals for understanding vesicle structure, properties and behavior.

Prokaryotic Systems Biology

Author: Nevan J. Krogan, PhD
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319236032
Size: 46.38 MB
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This book focuses on innovative experimental and computational approaches for charting interaction networks in bacterial species. The first part of the volume consists of nine chapters, focusing on biochemical and genetics and genomics approaches including yeast two hybrid, metagenomics, affinity purification in combination with mass spectrometry, chromatin-immunoprecipitation coupled with sequencing, large-scale synthetic genetic screens, and quantitative-based mass spectrometry strategies for mapping the bacterial physical, functional, substrate, and regulatory interaction networks needed for interpreting biological networks, inferring gene function, enzyme discovery, and identifying new drug targets. The second part comprises five chapters, covering the network of participants for protein folding and complex enzyme maturation. It also covers the structural approaches required to understand bacterial intramembrane proteolysis and the structure and function of bacterial proteins involved in surface polysaccharides, outer membrane, and envelope assembly. This volume concludes with a focus on computational and comparative genomics approaches, especially network-based methods for predicting physical or functional interactions, and integrative analytical approaches for generating more reliable information on bacterial gene function. This book provides foundational knowledge in the understanding of prokaryotic systems biology by illuminating how bacterial genes f unction within the framework of global cellular processes. The book will enable the microbiology community to create substantive resources for addressing many pending unanswered questions, and facilitate the development of new technologies that can be applied to other bacterial species lacking experimental data. ​ ​