Map Projections

Author: Erik W. Grafarend
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642364942
Size: 52.66 MB
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In the context of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) the book offers a timely review of Map Projections. The first chapters are of foundational type. We introduce the mapping from a left Riemann manifold to a right one specified as conformal, equiaerial and equidistant, perspective and geodetic. In particular, the mapping from a Riemann manifold to a Euclidean manifold ("plane") and the design of various coordinate systems are reviewed . A speciality is the treatment of surfaces of Gaussian curvature zero. The largest part is devoted to the mapping the sphere and the ellipsoid-of-revolution to tangential plane, cylinder and cone (pseudo-cone) using the polar aspect, transverse as well as oblique aspect. Various Geodetic Mappings as well as the Datum Problem are reviewed. In the first extension we introduce optimal map projections by variational calculus for the sphere, respectively the ellipsoid generating harmonic maps. The second extension reviews alternative maps for structures , namely torus (pneu), hyperboloid (cooling tower), paraboloid (parabolic mirror), onion shape (church tower) as well as clothoid (Hight Speed Railways) used in Project Surveying. Third, we present the Datum Transformation described by the Conformal Group C10 (3) in a threedimensional Euclidean space , a ten parameter conformal transformation. It leaves infinitesimal angles and distance ratios equivariant. Numerical examples from classical and new map projections as well as twelve appendices document the Wonderful World of Map Projections.

Geographical Information Systems And Computer Cartography

Author: Chris B. Jones
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317900251
Size: 22.79 MB
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A concise text presenting the fundamental concepts in Geographical Information Systems (GIS), emphasising an understanding of techniques in management, analysis and graphic display of spatial information. Divided into five parts - the first part reviews the development and application of GIS, followed by a summary of the characteristics and representation of geographical information. It concludes with an overview of the functions provided by typical GIS systems. Part Two introduces co-ordinate systems and map projections, describes methods for digitising map data and gives an overview of remote sensing. Part Three deals with data storage and database management, as well as specialised techniques for accessing spatial data. Spatial modelling and analytical techniques for decision making form the subject of Part Four, while the final part is concerned with graphical representation, emphasising issues of graphics technology, cartographic design and map generalisation.

Cartographic Science

Author: Donald Fenna
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849381690
Size: 18.88 MB
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Geographic books routinely introduce map projections without providing mathematical explanations of projections and few delve into complex mathematical development or cover the breadth of projections. From basic projecting to advanced transformations, Cartographic Science: A Compendium of Map Projections, with Derivations is a comprehensive reference that offers an explanation of the science of cartography. The book is a compilation of more than a hundred map projections, from classic conics to contemporary transformations using complex variables. Starting from widely described geometric projecting onto flat paper, cylinder, and cone and then progressing through several layers of mathematics to reach modern projections, the author maximizes the application of one layer of complex mathematics before continuing on to the next. He also supplies numerous one-page tutorials that review terms and methodologies, helping minimize the challenges of unfamiliar mathematical territory. Divided into four parts, the first section examines the shape and size of the Earth, then proceeds to investigate the means for relating the curved surface to a flat surface, and addresses scaling. It goes on to cover pertinent principles of projection including literal projecting, true but synthetic projections, secantal projections, pseudocylindrical projections, and pseudoconical projections, as well as the other variants of more serious projections. The book concludes by looking at factors influencing Mean Sea Level and notes the cartographic aspects of current developments. Cartographic Science: A Compendium of Map Projections, with Derivations explains the mathematical development for a large range of projections within a framework of the different cartographic methodologies. This carefully paced book covers more projections, with gentle and progressive immersion in the mathematics involved, than any other book of its kind.

Map Projection Transformation

Author: Qihe Yang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780748406678
Size: 59.87 MB
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With the advance of science and technology, there have been breakthroughs in the field of classical research and methods of map projection. Among these, computer science and space science have had the greater influence upon the field of research and the formation of a working body of map projection, developing them in breadth and depth. This book reflects several aspects of the development of modern mathematical cartography, especially the theory and methods of map projection transformation. Map projection transformation is an area of research in mathematical cartography newly developed over the last 25 years. It is widely used in surveying and computer-assisted cartography, data processing for information systems, and the transformation of data from space, remote sensing, and other space sciences. The development of map projection transformation not only expands new areas of research on mathematical cartography, but it also further develops the applied area with the creation and application of map projection transformation software and mapping mathematics bases on the computer.

Choosing A Map Projection

Author: Miljenko Lapaine
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319518356
Size: 56.48 MB
Format: PDF
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This book offers a much-needed critical approach to the intelligent use of the wide variety of map projections that are rapidly and inexpensively available today. It also discusses the distortions that are immanent in any map projection. A well-chosen map projection is one in which extreme distortions are smaller than those in any other projection used to map the same area and in which the map properties match its purpose. Written by leading experts in the field, including W. Tobler, F.C. Kessler, S.E. Battersby, M.P. Finn, K.C. Clarke, V.S. Tikunov, H. Hargitai, B. Jenny and N. Frančula. This book is designed for use by laymen. The book editors are M. Lapaine and E.L. Usery, Chair and Vice-Chair, respectively, of the ICA Commission on Map Projections for the period 2011-2015.

Map Projections

Author: L M Bugayevskiy
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780748403042
Size: 38.28 MB
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Map projection concerns the science of mathematical cartography, the techniques by which the Earth's dimensions, shape and features are translated in map form, be that two-dimensional paper or two- or three- dimensional electronic representations. The central focus of this book is on the theory of map projections. Mathematical cartography also takes in map scales and their variation, the division of maps into sets of sheets and nomenclature, and addresses the problems of making measurements and conducting investigations which make use of geodetic measurements and the development of graphical methods for solving problems of spherical trigonometry, marine- and aeronavigation, astronomy and even crystallography.

Small Scale Map Projection Design

Author: Frank Canters
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203472095
Size: 50.69 MB
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The use of computers in cartography has made it a lot easier for map makers to transform data from one map projection to another and experiment with alternative representations of geographical data. Yet this has also created new challenges and opportunities for map projection scientists. Small Scale Map Projection Design focuses on numerical map projection research, and is written from the perspective of the map projection user. It demonstrates how advances in the measurement of map projection distortion and in the development of low error map projections can help map makers decide what type of map projection is best for their purpose, and shows how they can eventually design their own tailor-made map projections. A number of significant contributions have been made to the subject over recent decades, and these are reviewed along with a substantial amount of original, unpublished material. This theoretical material is tied to practical applications and issues such as map projection use, optimization and selection, which are far too often carried out with simple rules-of-thumb methods.

Handbook On Geographic Information Systems And Digital Mapping

Author: United Nations. Statistical Division
Publisher: United Nations Publications
ISBN: 9789211614268
Size: 31.47 MB
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The rapid recent developments in digital mapping technology and the increasing demand for geo-referenced small area population data have been the main motivation for the present handbook. The Handbook provides guidance on how to ensure consistency and facilitate census operations; support data collection and help monitor census activities during enumeration; and facilitate presentation, analysis and dissemination of census results. Along with an overview of geographic information systems and digital mapping, the publication discusses cost-benefit analysis of an investment in digital cartography and geographical information systems (GIS); the use of GIS during census enumeration; and describes the role of GIS and digital mapping in the post-censal phase [from UN website].