Logics And Languages

Author: M. J. Cresswell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134874111
Size: 40.86 MB
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Originally published in 1973, this book shows that methods developed for the semantics of systems of formal logic can be successfully applied to problems about the semantics of natural languages; and, moreover, that such methods can take account of features of natural language which have often been thought incapable of formal treatment, such as vagueness, context dependence and metaphorical meaning. Parts 1 and 2 set out a class of formal languages and their semantics. Parts 3 and 4 show that these formal languages are rich enought to be used in the precise description of natural languages. Appendices describe some of the concepts discussed in the text.

Logic Language And Meaning Volume 1

Author: L. T. F. Gamut
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226280844
Size: 45.97 MB
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Although the two volumes of Logic, Language, and Meaning can be used independently of one another, together they provide a comprehensive overview of modern logic as it is used as a tool in the analysis of natural language. Both volumes provide exercises and their solutions. Volume 1, Introduction to Logic, begins with a historical overview and then offers a thorough introduction to standard propositional and first-order predicate logic. It provides both a syntactic and a semantic approach to inference and validity, and discusses their relationship. Although language and meaning receive special attention, this introduction is also accessible to those with a more general interest in logic. In addition, the volume contains a survey of such topics as definite descriptions, restricted quantification, second-order logic, and many-valued logic. The pragmatic approach to non-truthconditional and conventional implicatures are also discussed. Finally, the relation between logic and formal syntax is treated, and the notions of rewrite rule, automation, grammatical complexity, and language hierarchy are explained.

Puzzles In Logic Languages And Computation

Author: Dragomir Radev
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642343724
Size: 24.79 MB
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This is the second volume of a unique collection that brings together the best English-language problems created for students competing in the Computational Linguistics Olympiad. These problems are representative of the diverse areas presented in the competition and designed with three principles in mind: · To challenge the student analytically, without requiring any explicit knowledge or experience in linguistics or computer science; · To expose the student to the different kinds of reasoning required when encountering a new phenomenon in a language, both as a theoretical topic and as an applied problem; · To foster the natural curiosity students have about the workings of their own language, as well as to introduce them to the beauty and structure of other languages; · To learn about the models and techniques used by computers to understand human language. Aside from being a fun intellectual challenge, the Olympiad mimics the skills used by researchers and scholars in the field of computational linguistics. In an increasingly global economy where businesses operate across borders and languages, having a strong pool of computational linguists is a competitive advantage, and an important component to both security and growth in the 21st century. This collection of problems is a wonderful general introduction to the field of linguistics through the analytic problem solving technique. "A fantastic collection of problems for anyone who is curious about how human language works! These books take serious scientific questions and present them in a fun, accessible way. Readers exercise their logical thinking capabilities while learning about a wide range of human languages, linguistic phenomena, and computational models. " - Kevin Knight, USC Information Sciences Institute

An Advanced Logic Programming Language

Author: Tony Dodd
Publisher: Intellect Books
ISBN: 9781871516104
Size: 49.54 MB
Format: PDF
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This guide consists of a number of tutorials that provide detailed, comprehensive coverage of different aspects of Prolog in general, and Prolog-2 in particular. The first two thirds of the book covers facilities that exist in most DEC-10 style implementations which will in all likelihood form a major part of the forthcoming standard definition of the language. The remaining chapters deal wth the details of Prolog-2 in different environments.

The Shorter Science And Civilisation In China

Author: Joseph Needham
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521467735
Size: 39.37 MB
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This fifth volume of Colin Ronan's abridgement of Joseph Needham's monumental work is concerned with the remarkable engineering feats made during the early and medieval periods. No other country did more in civil engineering, both as to scale and skill, than China. The book opens with an account of the road system, which compared favorably with that of the Roman Empire. Naturally, the Great Wall of China is covered in some detail within the social context of walls, which--more than any other structure--mark the basic features of Chinese communities. The Chinese genius for town planning and achievements in hydraulic engineering are covered in later chapters. This book provides many clues as to the influence of Chinese innovation on Western engineering trends and will fascinate readers who are interested in the history of science and Chinese civilization.

Puzzles In Logic Languages And Computation

Author: Dragomir Radev
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642343783
Size: 32.20 MB
Format: PDF
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This is the first volume of a unique collection that brings together the best English-language problems created for students competing in the Computational Linguistics Olympiad. These problems are representative of the diverse areas presented in the competition and designed with three principles in mind: · To challenge the student analytically, without requiring any explicit knowledge or experience in linguistics or computer science; · To expose the student to the different kinds of reasoning required when encountering a new phenomenon in a language, both as a theoretical topic and as an applied problem; · To foster the natural curiosity students have about the workings of their own language, as well as to introduce them to the beauty and structure of other languages; · To learn about the models and techniques used by computers to understand human language. Aside from being a fun intellectual challenge, the Olympiad mimics the skills used by researchers and scholars in the field of computational linguistics. In an increasingly global economy where businesses operate across borders and languages, having a strong pool of computational linguists is a competitive advantage, and an important component to both security and growth in the 21st century. This collection of problems is a wonderful general introduction to the field of linguistics through the analytic problem solving technique. "A fantastic collection of problems for anyone who is curious about how human language works! These books take serious scientific questions and present them in a fun, accessible way. Readers exercise their logical thinking capabilities while learning about a wide range of human languages, linguistic phenomena, and computational models. " - Kevin Knight, USC Information Sciences Institute

A Millennium Of Buddhist Logic

Author: Alex Wayman
Publisher: Motilal Banarsidass Publ.
ISBN: 9788120816466
Size: 16.75 MB
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This is volume One of texts (from sanskrit and Tibetan sources) of the two planned volumes on Buddhist Ligic (the second volume to be on topics and opponents). This first volumes is in two parts. Part 1 has Asanga`s rules of Debate, Dharmakirti Nyayabindu with Kamalasila commentary and Santi-pa`s treatise on inner pervasion. Part II devoted to the Dignage-Dharmakirti system has five sets of eleven verses then a stydy if Bu-Ston`s commentary ib Dharmakirti`s Pramanaviniscaya and finally Tsong-kha-pa;s Mun sel on the seven books of Dharmakirti.

Logic Language And Computation

Author: Jonathan Ginzburg
Publisher: Center for the Study of Language and Information Publications
ISBN: 9781575861807
Size: 58.90 MB
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Ideas from theoretical computer science continue to have an important influence on areas of philosophy and linguistics. The papers contained in this volume by some of the most influential computer scientists, linguists, logicians and philosophers of today cover subjects such as channel theory, presupposition and constraints, the modeling of discourse, and belief. The contributors include: Jon Barwise, who shows how the ideas of channel theory fit in with non-monotonic logic; Jelle Gerbrandy shows how ideas from dynamic logic can be used to study the notion of common knowledge among groups of agents; Wiebe van der Hoek and Maarten de Rijke provide ideas from theoretical computer science to a more philosophical area, belief revision; Rohit Parikh proposes a solution to one of the problems of belief revision; Paul Skokowski discusses Fred Dretske's theory of content; and Thomas Ede Zimmermann discusses the notions of discourse referent and information states.

Language Truth And Logic

Author: Alfred Jules Ayer
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486113094
Size: 76.62 MB
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"A delightful book … I should like to have written it myself." — Bertrand Russell First published in 1936, this first full-length presentation in English of the Logical Positivism of Carnap, Neurath, and others has gone through many printings to become a classic of thought and communication. It not only surveys one of the most important areas of modern thought; it also shows the confusion that arises from imperfect understanding of the uses of language. A first-rate antidote for fuzzy thought and muddled writing, this remarkable book has helped philosophers, writers, speakers, teachers, students, and general readers alike. Mr. Ayers sets up specific tests by which you can easily evaluate statements of ideas. You will also learn how to distinguish ideas that cannot be verified by experience — those expressing religious, moral, or aesthetic experience, those expounding theological or metaphysical doctrine, and those dealing with a priori truth. The basic thesis of this work is that philosophy should not squander its energies upon the unknowable, but should perform its proper function in criticism and analysis.