Logic Language And Meaning Volume 1

Author: L. T. F. Gamut
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226280844
Size: 46.43 MB
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Although the two volumes of Logic, Language, and Meaning can be used independently of one another, together they provide a comprehensive overview of modern logic as it is used as a tool in the analysis of natural language. Both volumes provide exercises and their solutions. Volume 1, Introduction to Logic, begins with a historical overview and then offers a thorough introduction to standard propositional and first-order predicate logic. It provides both a syntactic and a semantic approach to inference and validity, and discusses their relationship. Although language and meaning receive special attention, this introduction is also accessible to those with a more general interest in logic. In addition, the volume contains a survey of such topics as definite descriptions, restricted quantification, second-order logic, and many-valued logic. The pragmatic approach to non-truthconditional and conventional implicatures are also discussed. Finally, the relation between logic and formal syntax is treated, and the notions of rewrite rule, automation, grammatical complexity, and language hierarchy are explained.

Logics And Languages

Author: M. J. Cresswell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134874111
Size: 17.63 MB
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Originally published in 1973, this book shows that methods developed for the semantics of systems of formal logic can be successfully applied to problems about the semantics of natural languages; and, moreover, that such methods can take account of features of natural language which have often been thought incapable of formal treatment, such as vagueness, context dependence and metaphorical meaning. Parts 1 and 2 set out a class of formal languages and their semantics. Parts 3 and 4 show that these formal languages are rich enought to be used in the precise description of natural languages. Appendices describe some of the concepts discussed in the text.

Puzzles In Logic Languages And Computation

Author: Dragomir Radev
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642343724
Size: 37.49 MB
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This is the second volume of a unique collection that brings together the best English-language problems created for students competing in the Computational Linguistics Olympiad. These problems are representative of the diverse areas presented in the competition and designed with three principles in mind: · To challenge the student analytically, without requiring any explicit knowledge or experience in linguistics or computer science; · To expose the student to the different kinds of reasoning required when encountering a new phenomenon in a language, both as a theoretical topic and as an applied problem; · To foster the natural curiosity students have about the workings of their own language, as well as to introduce them to the beauty and structure of other languages; · To learn about the models and techniques used by computers to understand human language. Aside from being a fun intellectual challenge, the Olympiad mimics the skills used by researchers and scholars in the field of computational linguistics. In an increasingly global economy where businesses operate across borders and languages, having a strong pool of computational linguists is a competitive advantage, and an important component to both security and growth in the 21st century. This collection of problems is a wonderful general introduction to the field of linguistics through the analytic problem solving technique. "A fantastic collection of problems for anyone who is curious about how human language works! These books take serious scientific questions and present them in a fun, accessible way. Readers exercise their logical thinking capabilities while learning about a wide range of human languages, linguistic phenomena, and computational models. " - Kevin Knight, USC Information Sciences Institute

An Advanced Logic Programming Language

Author: Tony Dodd
Publisher: Intellect Books
ISBN: 9781871516104
Size: 28.80 MB
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This guide consists of a number of tutorials that provide detailed, comprehensive coverage of different aspects of Prolog in general, and Prolog-2 in particular. The first two thirds of the book covers facilities that exist in most DEC-10 style implementations which will in all likelihood form a major part of the forthcoming standard definition of the language. The remaining chapters deal wth the details of Prolog-2 in different environments.

The Shorter Science And Civilisation In China

Author: Joseph Needham
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521315609
Size: 58.31 MB
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This fifth volume of Colin Ronan's abridgement of Joseph Needham's monumental work is concerned with the staggering civil engineering feats made in early and medieval China. No other country did more in civil engineering, both as to scale and skill, than China. The book opens with an account of the road system, which compared not unfavourably with that of the Roman Empire. Naturally, the Great Wall of China is covered in some detail within the social context of walls, which mark, more than any other structure, the basic features of the Chinese communities. The Chinese genius of town planning and achievements in building canals and in hydraulic engineering are covered in later chapters. This book concludes the abridgement of the Chinese engineering, and provides many clues as to the influence of Chinese innovation on Western engineering trends.

Logic Language And Computation

Author: Jonathan Ginzburg
Publisher: Center for the Study of Language and Information Publications
ISBN: 9781575861807
Size: 37.39 MB
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Ideas from theoretical computer science continue to have an important influence on areas of philosophy and linguistics. The papers contained in this volume by some of the most influential computer scientists, linguists, logicians and philosophers of today cover subjects such as channel theory, presupposition and constraints, the modeling of discourse, and belief. The contributors include: Jon Barwise, who shows how the ideas of channel theory fit in with non-monotonic logic; Jelle Gerbrandy shows how ideas from dynamic logic can be used to study the notion of common knowledge among groups of agents; Wiebe van der Hoek and Maarten de Rijke provide ideas from theoretical computer science to a more philosophical area, belief revision; Rohit Parikh proposes a solution to one of the problems of belief revision; Paul Skokowski discusses Fred Dretske's theory of content; and Thomas Ede Zimmermann discusses the notions of discourse referent and information states.

A Millennium Of Buddhist Logic

Author: Alex Wayman
Publisher: Motilal Banarsidass Publ.
ISBN: 9788120816466
Size: 27.80 MB
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This is volume One of texts (from sanskrit and Tibetan sources) of the two planned volumes on Buddhist Ligic (the second volume to be on topics and opponents). This first volumes is in two parts. Part 1 has Asanga`s rules of Debate, Dharmakirti Nyayabindu with Kamalasila commentary and Santi-pa`s treatise on inner pervasion. Part II devoted to the Dignage-Dharmakirti system has five sets of eleven verses then a stydy if Bu-Ston`s commentary ib Dharmakirti`s Pramanaviniscaya and finally Tsong-kha-pa;s Mun sel on the seven books of Dharmakirti.

Fuzzy Logic And The Semantic Web

Author: Elie Sanchez
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080460482
Size: 67.48 MB
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These are exciting times in the fields of Fuzzy Logic and the Semantic Web, and this book will add to the excitement, as it is the first volume to focus on the growing connections between these two fields. This book is expected to be a valuable aid to anyone considering the application of Fuzzy Logic to the Semantic Web, because it contains a number of detailed accounts of these combined fields, written by leading authors in several countries. The Fuzzy Logic field has been maturing for forty years. These years have witnessed a tremendous growth in the number and variety of applications, with a real-world impact across a wide variety of domains with humanlike behavior and reasoning. And we believe that in the coming years, the Semantic Web will be major field of applications of Fuzzy Logic. This book, the first in the new series Capturing Intelligence, shows the positive role Fuzzy Logic, and more generally Soft Computing, can play in the development of the Semantic Web, filling a gap and facing a new challenge. It covers concepts, tools, techniques and applications exhibiting the usefulness, and the necessity, for using Fuzzy Logic in the Semantic Web. It finally opens the road to new systems with a high Web IQ. Most of today's Web content is suitable for human consumption. The Semantic Web is presented as an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. For example, within the Semantic Web, computers will understand the meaning of semantic data on a web page by following links to specified ontologies. But while the Semantic Web vision and research attracts attention, as long as it will be used two-valued-based logical methods no progress will be expected in handling ill-structured, uncertain or imprecise information encountered in real world knowledge. Fuzzy Logic and associated concepts and techniques (more generally, Soft Computing), has certainly a positive role to play in the development of the Semantic Web. Fuzzy Logic will not supposed to be the basis for the Semantic Web but its related concepts and techniques will certainly reinforce the systems classically developed within W3C. In fact, Fuzzy Logic cannot be ignored in order to bridge the gap between human-understandable soft logic and machine-readable hard logic. None of the usual logical requirements can be guaranteed: there is no centrally defined format for data, no guarantee of truth for assertions made, no guarantee of consistency. To support these arguments, this book shows how components of the Semantic Web (like XML, RDF, Description Logics, Conceptual Graphs, Ontologies) can be covered, with in each case a Fuzzy Logic focus. First volume to focus on the growing connections between Fuzzy Logic and the Semantic Web Keynote chapter by Lotfi Zadeh The Semantic Web is presently expected to be a major field of applications of Fuzzy Logic It fills a gap and faces a new challenge in the development of the Semantic Web It opens the road to new systems with a high Web IQ Contributed chapters by Fuzzy Logic leading experts

Handbook Of The Logic Of Argument And Inference

Author: R.H. Johnson
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080532912
Size: 28.89 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The Handbook of the Logic of Argument and Inference is an authoritative reference work in a single volume, designed for the attention of senior undergraduates, graduate students and researchers in all the leading research areas concerned with the logic of practical argument and inference. After an introductory chapter, the role of standard logics is surveyed in two chapters. These chapters can serve as a mini-course for interested readers, in deductive and inductive logic, or as a refresher. Then follow two chapters of criticism; one the internal critique and the other the empirical critique. The first deals with objections to standard logics (as theories of argument and inference) arising from the research programme in philosophical logic. The second canvasses criticisms arising from work in cognitive and experimental psychology. The next five chapters deal with developments in dialogue logic, interrogative logic, informal logic, probability logic and artificial intelligence. The last chapter surveys formal approaches to practical reasoning and anticipates possible future developments. Taken as a whole the Handbook is a single-volume indication of the present state of the logic of argument and inference at its conceptual and theoretical best. Future editions will periodically incorporate significant new developments.