Leaderless Jihad

Author: Marc Sageman
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812206789
Size: 57.30 MB
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In the post-September 11 world, Al Qaeda is no longer the central organizing force that aids or authorizes terrorist attacks or recruits terrorists. It is now more a source of inspiration for terrorist acts carried out by independent local groups that have branded themselves with the Al Qaeda name. Building on his previous groundbreaking work on the Al Qaeda network, forensic psychiatrist Marc Sageman has greatly expanded his research to explain how Islamic terrorism emerges and operates in the twenty-first century. In Leaderless Jihad, Sageman rejects the views that place responsibility for terrorism on society or a flawed, predisposed individual. Instead, he argues, the individual, outside influence, and group dynamics come together in a four-step process through which Muslim youth become radicalized. First, traumatic events either experienced personally or learned about indirectly spark moral outrage. Individuals interpret this outrage through a specific ideology, more felt and understood than based on doctrine. Usually in a chat room or other Internet-based venues, adherents share this moral outrage, which resonates with the personal experiences of others. The outrage is acted on by a group, either online or offline. Leaderless Jihad offers a ray of hope. Drawing on historical analogies, Sageman argues that the zeal of jihadism is self-terminating; eventually its followers will turn away from violence as a means of expressing their discontent. The book concludes with Sageman's recommendations for the application of his research to counterterrorism law enforcement efforts.

Leaderless Jihad

Author: Marc Sageman
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 9780812240658
Size: 53.35 MB
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In the post-September 11 world, Al Qaeda is no longer the central organizing force that aids or authorizes terrorist attacks or recruits terrorists. It is now more a source of inspiration for terrorist acts carried out by independent local groups that have branded themselves with the Al Qaeda name. Building on his previous groundbreaking work on the Al Qaeda network, forensic psychiatrist Marc Sageman has greatly expanded his research to explain how Islamic terrorism emerges and operates in the twenty-first century. In Leaderless Jihad, Sageman rejects the views that place responsibility for terrorism on society or a flawed, predisposed individual. Instead, he argues, the individual, outside influence, and group dynamics come together in a four-step process through which Muslim youth become radicalized. First, traumatic events either experienced personally or learned about indirectly spark moral outrage. Individuals interpret this outrage through a specific ideology, more felt and understood than based on doctrine. Usually in a chat room or other Internet-based venues, adherents share this moral outrage, which resonates with the personal experiences of others. The outrage is acted on by a group, either online or offline. Leaderless Jihad offers a ray of hope. Drawing on historical analogies, Sageman argues that the zeal of jihadism is self-terminating; eventually its followers will turn away from violence as a means of expressing their discontent. The book concludes with Sageman's recommendations for the application of his research to counterterrorism law enforcement efforts.

Understanding Terror Networks

Author: Marc Sageman
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812206797
Size: 48.22 MB
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For decades, a new type of terrorism has been quietly gathering ranks in the world. America's ability to remain oblivious to these new movements ended on September 11, 2001. The Islamist fanatics in the global Salafi jihad (the violent, revivalist social movement of which al Qaeda is a part) target the West, but their operations mercilessly slaughter thousands of people of all races and religions throughout the world. Marc Sageman challenges conventional wisdom about terrorism, observing that the key to mounting an effective defense against future attacks is a thorough understanding of the networks that allow these new terrorists to proliferate. Based on intensive study of biographical data on 172 participants in the jihad, Understanding Terror Networks gives us the first social explanation of the global wave of activity. Sageman traces its roots in Egypt, gestation in Afghanistan during the Soviet-Afghan war, exile in the Sudan, and growth of branches worldwide, including detailed accounts of life within the Hamburg and Montreal cells that planned attacks on the United States. U.S. government strategies to combat the jihad are based on the traditional reasons an individual was thought to turn to terrorism: poverty, trauma, madness, and ignorance. Sageman refutes all these notions, showing that, for the vast majority of the mujahedin, social bonds predated ideological commitment, and it was these social networks that inspired alienated young Muslims to join the jihad. These men, isolated from the rest of society, were transformed into fanatics yearning for martyrdom and eager to kill. The tight bonds of family and friendship, paradoxically enhanced by the tenuous links between the cell groups (making it difficult for authorities to trace connections), contributed to the jihad movement's flexibility and longevity. And although Sageman's systematic analysis highlights the crucial role the networks played in the terrorists' success, he states unequivocally that the level of commitment and choice to embrace violence were entirely their own. Understanding Terror Networks combines Sageman's scrutiny of sources, personal acquaintance with Islamic fundamentalists, deep appreciation of history, and effective application of network theory, modeling, and forensic psychology. Sageman's unique research allows him to go beyond available academic studies, which are light on facts, and journalistic narratives, which are devoid of theory. The result is a profound contribution to our understanding of the perpetrators of 9/11 that has practical implications for the war on terror.

Understanding Jihad

Author: David Cook
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520962494
Size: 69.72 MB
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First published in 2005, Understanding Jihad unravels the tangled historical, intellectual, and political meanings of jihad within the context of Islamic life. In this revised and expanded second edition, author David Cook has included new material in light of pivotal developments such as the extraordinary events of the Arab Spring, the death of Usama b. Ladin, and the rise of new Islamic factions such as ISIS. Jihad is one of the most loaded and misunderstood terms in the news today. Contrary to popular understanding, the term does not mean "holy war." Nor does it simply refer to an inner spiritual struggle. This judiciously balanced, accessibly written, and highly relevant book looks closely at a range of sources from sacred Islamic texts to modern interpretations, opening a critically important perspective on the role of Islam in the contemporary world. David Cook cites from scriptural, legal, and newly translated texts to give readers insight into the often ambiguous information that is used to construct Islamic doctrine. He sheds light on legal developments relevant to fighting and warfare and places the internal, spiritual jihad within the larger context of Islamic religion. He describes some of the conflicts that occur in radical groups and shows how the more mainstream supporters of these groups have come to understand and justify violence. He has also included a special appendix of relevant documents including materials related to the September 11 attacks and published manifestos issued by Usama b. Ladin and Palestinian suicide-martyrs.

Anti American Terrorism And The Middle East

Author: Barry Rubin
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195176599
Size: 63.87 MB
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After the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, a stunned public asked: How could this happen? Why did the attackers do what they did? What did they hope to accomplish? This wasn't the first battle in a conflict that has included bombings of U.S. embassies and planes, the Iran hostage crisis, and kidnappings or shootings of American citizens. This unique volume sets out to answer these questions using the unfiltered words of the terrorists themselves. Over many decades, radical forces in the Middle East have changed and evolved, yet their basic outlook and anti-Western views have remained remarkably consistent. Barry Rubin and Judith Colp Rubin have assembled nearly one hundred key documents, charting the evolution of radical Middle East movements, their anti-Americanism, and Western policy response. The buildup to the battle between a world superpower and Middle East revolutionaries is brought dramatically to life. Among the documents included are the charters of such organizations as Hizballah, Hamas, and World Islamic Front; speeches by Syrian president Hafiz al-Asad and former Iraqi president Saddam Hussein; al-Qa'ida recruitment materials; and terrorist training manuals. The book also shows and analyzes the often conflicting and deeply conflicted responses to September 11 by journalists, clerics, and activists in the Arab world. Supplemented by an annotated chronology, a glossary of terms, and sections that put each selection in context, this comprehensive reference serves not only as essential historical background to the ongoing aftermath of the September 11 attacks, but more generally as an invaluable framework for understanding a long-term, continuing conflict that has caused many crises for the United States.

Counterstrike

Author: Eric Schmitt
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 1429973102
Size: 66.91 MB
Format: PDF
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Inside the Pentagon's secretive and revolutionary new strategy to fight terrorism--and its game-changing effects in the Middle East and at home In the years following the 9/11 attacks, the United States waged a "war on terror" that sought to defeat Al Qaeda through brute force. But it soon became clear that this strategy was not working, and by 2005 the Pentagon began looking for a new way. In Counterstrike, Eric Schmitt and Thom Shanker of The New York Times tell the story of how a group of analysts within the military, at spy agencies, and in law enforcement has fashioned an innovative and effective new strategy to fight terrorism, unbeknownst to most Americans and in sharp contrast to the cowboy slogans that characterized the U.S. government's public posture. Adapting themes from classic Cold War deterrence theory, these strategists have expanded the field of battle in order to disrupt jihadist networks in ever more creative ways. Schmitt and Shanker take readers deep into this theater of war, as ground troops, intelligence operatives, and top executive branch officials have worked together to redefine and restrict the geography available for Al Qaeda to operate in. They also show how these new counterterrorism strategies, adopted under George W. Bush and expanded under Barack Obama, were successfully employed in planning and carrying out the dramatic May 2011 raid in which Osama bin Laden was killed. Filled with startling revelations about how our national security is being managed, Counterstrike will change the way Americans think about the ongoing struggle with violent radical extremism.

Misunderstanding Terrorism

Author: Marc Sageman
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812248899
Size: 40.62 MB
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Misunderstanding Terrorism provides a striking reassessment of the scope and nature of the global neo-jihadi threat to the West. The post-9/11 decade experienced the emergence of new forms of political violence and new terrorist actors. More recently, Marc Sageman's understanding of how and why people have adopted fundamentalist ideologies and terrorist methods has evolved. Author of the classic Understanding Terror Networks, Sageman has become only more critical of the U.S. government's approach to the problem. He argues that U.S. society has been transformed for the worse by an extreme overreaction to a limited threat—limited, he insists, despite spectacular recent incidents, which he takes fully into account. Indeed, his discussion of just how limited the threat is marks a major contribution to the discussion and debate over the best way to a measured and much more effective response.

Terrorism In The Twenty First Century

Author: Cynthia C. Combs
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317206797
Size: 18.83 MB
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Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century helps readers understand terrorism, responses to it, and current trends that affect the future of this phenomenon. Putting terrorism into historical perspective and analyzing it as a form of political violence, this text presents the most essential concepts, the latest data, and numerous case studies to promote effective analysis of terrorist acts. Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century objectively breaks down the who-what-why-how of terrorism, giving readers a way both to understand patterns of behavior and to more critically evaluate forthcoming patterns. New to the 8th Edition Provides a more intense exploration of religion as a primary cause of contemporary terrorism. Focuses on the role of social media in recruitment and propaganda. Examines the radicalization and recruitment by ISIS to fighting and to domestic young people to carry out attacks at home. Explores the growing threat – and reality – of cyber attacks. Updates the material on the networking of terrorism today.

Partisans Of Allah

Author: Ayesha Jalal
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674039076
Size: 47.47 MB
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Today, more than ever, jihad signifies the political opposition between Islam and the West. As the line drawn between Muslims and non-Muslims becomes more rigid, Jalal seeks to retrieve the ethical meanings of this core Islamic principle in South Asian history. Drawing on historical, legal, and literary sources, Jalal traces the intellectual itinerary of jihad through several centuries and across the territory connecting the Middle East with South Asia.

Understanding Assessing And Responding To Terrorism

Author: Brian T. Bennett
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119237815
Size: 32.52 MB
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A comprehensive guide to understanding, assessing, and responding to terrorism in this modern age This book provides readers with a thorough understanding of the types of attacks that may be perpetrated, and how to identify potential targets, conduct a meaningful vulnerability analysis, and apply protective measures to secure personnel and facilities. The new edition of Understanding, Assessing, and Responding to Terrorism updates existing material and includes several new topics that have emerged, including information on new international terrorist groups as well as a new chapter on Regulations and Standards. A vulnerability analysis methodology, consisting of several steps—which include the techniques necessary to conduct a vulnerability analysis—is introduced and applied through several sample scenarios. By using easily customized templates for the screening process, valuation of a critical asset as a target, vulnerability analysis, security procedures, emergency response procedures, and training programs, the book offers a practical step-by-step process to help reduce risk. Each different type of terrorism is briefly discussed—however, the book focuses on those potential attacks that may involve weapons of mass destruction. There is a discussion of what physical and administrative enhancements can be implemented to improve a facility's ability to devalue, detect, deter, deny, delay, defend, respond, and recover to a real or threatened terrorist attack—whether it be at a facility, or in the community. Techniques on how personnel safety and security can be improved through the implementation of counter-terrorism programs are also outlined. An overview of the major counter-terrorism regulations and standards are presented, along with the significant governmental efforts that have been implemented to help prevent terrorist attacks and foster preparedness at both private and public sector facilities and for personnel. Understanding, Assessing, and Responding to Terrorism, Second Edition: Updates existing material, plus includes several new topics that have emerged including information on new international terrorist groups, new terrorist tactics, cyber terrorism, and Regulations and Standards Outlines techniques for improving facility and personnel safety and security through the implementation of counter-terrorism programs Unites the emergency response/public sector community with the private sector over infrastructure protection, thus allowing for easier communication between them Includes questions/exercises at the end of each chapter and a solutions manual to facilitate its use as a textbook Understanding, Assessing, and Responding to Terrorism, Second Edition is a must-have reference for private and public sector risk managers, safety engineers, security professionals, facility managers, emergency responders, and others charged with protecting facilities and personnel from all types of hazards (accidental, intentional, and natural).