Knots And Physics

Author: Louis H. Kauffman
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814383007
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An introduction to knot and link invariants as generalised amplitudes for a quasi-physical process. The demands of knot theory, coupled with a quantum-statistical framework, create a context that naturally and powerfully includes an extraordinary range of interrelated topics in topology and mathematical physics.

Knots And Physics

Author: Louis H Kauffman
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814494097
Size: 44.75 MB
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This invaluable book is an introduction to knot and link invariants as generalised amplitudes for a quasi-physical process. The demands of knot theory, coupled with a quantum-statistical framework, create a context that naturally and powerfully includes an extraordinary range of interrelated topics in topology and mathematical physics. The author takes a primarily combinatorial stance toward knot theory and its relations with these subjects. This stance has the advantage of providing direct access to the algebra and to the combinatorial topology, as well as physical ideas. The book is divided into two parts: Part I is a systematic course on knots and physics starting from the ground up, and Part II is a set of lectures on various topics related to Part I. Part II includes topics such as frictional properties of knots, relations with combinatorics, and knots in dynamical systems. In this third edition, a paper by the author entitled “Knot Theory and Functional Integration” has been added. This paper shows how the Kontsevich integral approach to the Vassiliev invariants is directly related to the perturbative expansion of Witten's functional integral. While the book supplies the background, this paper can be read independently as an introduction to quantum field theory and knot invariants and their relation to quantum gravity. As in the second edition, there is a selection of papers by the author at the end of the book. Numerous clarifying remarks have been added to the text. Contents:Physical KnotsStates and the Bracket PolynomialThe Jones Polynomial and Its GeneralizationsBraids and the Jones PolynomialFormal Feynman Diagrams, Bracket as a Vacuum-Vacuum Expectation and the Quantum Group SL(2)qYang-Baxter Models for Specializations of the Homfly PolynomialKnot-Crystals — Classical Knot Theory in a Modern GuiseThe Kauffman PolynomialThree Manifold Invariants from the Jones PolynomialIntegral Heuristics and Witten's InvariantsThe Chromatic PolynomialThe Potts Model and the Dichromatic PolynomialThe Penrose Theory of Spin NetworksKnots and Strings — Knotted StringsDNA and Quantum Field TheoryKnots in Dynamical Systems — The Lorenz Attractorand selected papers Readership: Physicists and mathematicians. Keywords:Knots;Kauffman;Jones PolynomialReviews: “It is an attractive book for physicists with profuse and often entertaining illustrations … proofs … seldom heavy and nearly always well explained with pictures … succeeds in infusing his own excitement and enthusiasm for these discoveries and their potential implications.” Physics Today “The exposition is clear and well illustrated with many examples. The book can be recommended to everyone interested in the connections between physics and topology of knots.” Mathematics Abstracts “… here is a gold mine where, with care and patience, one should get acquainted with a beautiful subject under the guidance of a most original and imaginative mind.” Mathematical Reviews

Zero To Infinity

Author: Peter Rowlands
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812709150
Size: 22.13 MB
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Unique in its field, this book uses a methodology that is entirely new, creating the simplest and most abstract foundations for physics to date. The author proposes a fundamental description of process in a universal computational rewrite system, leading to an irreducible form of relativistic quantum mechanics from a single operator. This is not only simpler, and more fundamental, but also seemingly more powerful than any other quantum mechanics formalism available. The methodology finds immediate applications in particle physics, theoretical physics and theoretical computing. In addition, taking the rewrite structure more generally as a description of process, the book shows how it can be applied to large-scale structures beyond the realm of fundamental physics. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Zero (228 KB). Contents: Zero; Why Does Physics Work?; The Emergence of Physics; Groups and Representations; Breaking the Dirac Code; The Dirac Nilpotent; Nonrelativistic Quantum Mechanics and the Classical Transition; The Classical and Special Relativistic Approximations; The Resolution of Paradoxes; Electric, Strong and Weak Interactions; QED and Its Analogues; Vacuum; Fermion and Boson Structures; A Representation of Strong and Weak Interactions; Grand Unification and Particle Masses; The Factor 2 and Duality; Gravity and Inertia; Dimensionality, Strings and Quantum Gravity; Nature''s Code; Nature''s Rule; Infinity. Readership: Researchers in quantum, theoretical and high energy physics.

Gauge Fields Knots And Gravity

Author: John Baez
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 9813103248
Size: 59.28 MB
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This is an introduction to the basic tools of mathematics needed to understand the relation between knot theory and quantum gravity. The book begins with a rapid course on manifolds and differential forms, emphasizing how these provide a proper language for formulating Maxwell's equations on arbitrary spacetimes. The authors then introduce vector bundles, connections and curvature in order to generalize Maxwell theory to the Yang-Mills equations. The relation of gauge theory to the newly discovered knot invariants such as the Jones polynomial is sketched. Riemannian geometry is then introduced in order to describe Einstein's equations of general relativity and show how an attempt to quantize gravity leads to interesting applications of knot theory.

Topology And Condensed Matter Physics

Author: Somendra Mohan Bhattacharjee
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811068410
Size: 59.74 MB
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This book introduces aspects of topology and applications to problems in condensed matter physics. Basic topics in mathematics have been introduced in a form accessible to physicists, and the use of topology in quantum, statistical and solid state physics has been developed with an emphasis on pedagogy. The aim is to bridge the language barrier between physics and mathematics, as well as the different specializations in physics. Pitched at the level of a graduate student of physics, this book does not assume any additional knowledge of mathematics or physics. It is therefore suited for advanced postgraduate students as well. A collection of selected problems will help the reader learn the topics on one's own, and the broad range of topics covered will make the text a valuable resource for practising researchers in the field. The book consists of two parts: one corresponds to developing the necessary mathematics and the other discusses applications to physical problems. The section on mathematics is a quick, but more-or-less complete, review of topology. The focus is on explaining fundamental concepts rather than dwelling on details of proofs while retaining the mathematical flavour. There is an overview chapter at the beginning and a recapitulation chapter on group theory. The physics section starts with an introduction and then goes on to topics in quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics of polymers, knots, and vertex models, solid state physics, exotic excitations such as Dirac quasiparticles, Majorana modes, Abelian and non-Abelian anyons. Quantum spin liquids and quantum information-processing are also covered in some detail.

History And Science Of Knots

Author: J C Turner
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814499641
Size: 34.97 MB
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This book brings together twenty essays on diverse topics in the history and science of knots. It is divided into five parts, which deal respectively with knots in prehistory and antiquity, non-European traditions, working knots, the developing science of knots, and decorative and other aspects of knots. Its authors include archaeologists who write on knots found in digs of ancient sites (one describes the knots used by the recently discovered Ice Man); practical knotters who have studied the history and uses of knots at sea, for fishing and for various life support activities; a historian of lace; a computer scientist writing on computer classification of doilies; and mathematicians who describe the history of knot theories from the eighteenth century to the present day. In view of the explosion of mathematical theories of knots in the past decade, with consequential new and important scientific applications, this book is timely in setting down a brief, fragmentary history of mankind's oldest and most useful technical and decorative device — the knot. Contents:Prehistory and Antiquity:Pleistocene KnottingWhy Knot? — Some Speculations on the First KnotsOn Knots and Swamps — Knots in European PrehistoryAncient Egyptian Rope and KnotsNon-European Traditions:The Peruvian QuipuThe Art of Chinese Knots Works: A Short HistoryInuit KnotsWorking Knots:Knots at SeaA History of Life Support KnotsTowards a Science of Knots?:Studies on the Behaviour of KnotsA History of Topological Knot Theory of KnotsTramblesCrochet Work — History and Computer ApplicationsDecorative Knots and Other Aspects:The History of MacraméA History of LaceHeraldic KnotsOn the True Love Knotand other papers Readership: Mathematicians, archeologists, social historians and general readers. keywords:Antiquit;Braiding;Climbing;Heraldry;History;Knots;Lace;Mariners;Prehistory;Quipus;Science;Theory;Topology;Knotting, Pleistocene;Egyptian;Inuit;Chinese;Mountaineering, Topological Knot Theory;Knot Theories;Quipo Knot Mathematics;Knot Strength Efficiency;Heraldic;True Love;Crochet;Computer Aided Design;Trambles “… it is a veritable compendium of information about every aspects of knots, from their links with quantum theory to attempts to measure their strength when tying climbing ropes together … the huge scope of this book makes it one I have turned to many times, for many different purposes.” New Scientists “I enjoyed browsing through all the chapters. They contain material that a mathematician would not normally come across in his work.” The Mathematical Intelligencer

Entropic Spacetime Theory

Author: Jack Armel
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9810228422
Size: 62.22 MB
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This book sets up a discrete universe with minimum and maximum dimensions. Singularity is rejected.Entropic Spacetime Theory divides the universe into a kinetic system and an entropic spacetime. The kinetic system is what our present physics is all about; it deals with radiation (vector bosons) and mass particles (fermions). Relativity and quantum mechanics deal almost entirely in the kinetic system.The entropic spacetime (EST) defines space; in this theory there is no vacuum ? EST is space. Made up of energy and dipole charges, its values can be converted into length and time.The theory offers a new description of space, a new cosmology, names space as the original creator of all new matter and radiation.

New Ideas In Low Dimensional Topology

Author: Manturov Vassily Olegovich
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814630632
Size: 29.88 MB
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This book consists of a selection of articles devoted to new ideas and developments in low dimensional topology. Low dimensions refer to dimensions three and four for the topology of manifolds and their submanifolds. Thus we have papers related to both manifolds and to knotted submanifolds of dimension one in three (classical knot theory) and two in four (surfaces in four dimensional spaces). Some of the work involves virtual knot theory where the knots are abstractions of classical knots but can be represented by knots embedded in surfaces. This leads both to new interactions with classical topology and to new interactions with essential combinatorics.

The Everything Knots Book

Author: Randy Penn
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1440522774
Size: 53.25 MB
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Simple instructions on how to tie over 100 useful and decorative knots A well-tied knot is at once a practical tool and a work of art. With names like "hangman's noose" and "wagoneer's hitch," knots have a rich history of usefulness and an aesthetic appeal all their own. From the boat to the backyard, The Everything Knots Book provides simple instructions on how to tie knots for any situation. Written by Randy Penn, a member of the International Guild of Knot Tyers, this handy guide walks readers through the basics and offers myriad suggestions for creative uses of these knots. Mr. Penn shows readers how to: Choose the right rope and knot for the job Tie knots safely and securely Create decorative knots for clothing and accessories Practice knot-tying through games and exercises Packed with easy-to-follow instructions and clear illustrations, The Everything Knots Book makes learning this useful skill fun and easy.

Beyond Measure

Author: Jay Kappraff
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789810247027
Size: 14.90 MB
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This book consists of essays that stand on their own but are also loosely connected. Part I documents how numbers and geometry arise in several cultural contexts and in nature: scale, proportion in architecture, ancient geometry, megalithic stone circles, the hidden pavements of the Laurentian library, the shapes of the Hebrew letters, and the shapes of biological forms. Part II shows how many of the same numbers and number sequences are related to the modern mathematical study of numbers, dynamical systems, chaos, and fractals.