Introduction To Systems Ecology

Author: Sven Erik Jorgensen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 143985520X
Size: 72.34 MB
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Possibly the first textbook to present a practically applicable ecosystems theory, Introduction to Systems Ecology helps readers understand how ecosystems work and how they react to disturbances. It demonstrates—with many examples and illustrations—how to apply the theory to explain observations and to make quantitative calculations and predictions. In this book, Sven Erik Jørgensen takes a first step toward integrating thermodynamics, biochemistry, hierarchical organization, and network theory into a holistic theory of systems ecology. The first part of the book covers the laws of thermodynamics and the basic biochemistry of living organisms, as well as the constraints they impose on ecosystems. To grow and develop, however, ecosystems have to evade these thermodynamic and biochemical constraints, so the second part of the book discusses the seven basic properties that enable ecosystems to grow, develop, and survive: They are open systems, far from thermodynamic equilibrium. They are organized hierarchically. They have a high diversity. They have high buffer capacities toward changes. Their components are organized in cooperative networks, which allows for sophisticated feedback, regulation mechanisms, and higher efficiencies. They contain an enormous amount of information embodied in genomes. They have emerging system properties. This timely textbook also looks at how systems ecology is applied in integrated environmental management, particularly in ecological modeling and engineering and in the assessment of ecosystem health using ecological indicators. Acknowledging that there is still much room for improvement, it will inspire ecologists to develop a stronger and more widely applicable ecosystem theory.

Introduction To Systems Ecology

Author: Sven Erik Jorgensen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1842145568
Size: 17.66 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 7329
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Possibly the first textbook to present a practically applicable ecosystems theory, Introduction to Systems Ecology helps readers understand how ecosystems work and how they react to disturbances. It demonstrates—with many examples and illustrations—how to apply the theory to explain observations and to make quantitative calculations and predictions. In this book, Sven Erik Jørgensen takes a first step toward integrating thermodynamics, biochemistry, hierarchical organization, and network theory into a holistic theory of systems ecology. The first part of the book covers the laws of thermodynamics and the basic biochemistry of living organisms, as well as the constraints they impose on ecosystems. To grow and develop, however, ecosystems have to evade these thermodynamic and biochemical constraints, so the second part of the book discusses the seven basic properties that enable ecosystems to grow, develop, and survive: They are open systems, far from thermodynamic equilibrium. They are organized hierarchically. They have a high diversity. They have high buffer capacities toward changes. Their components are organized in cooperative networks, which allows for sophisticated feedback, regulation mechanisms, and higher efficiencies. They contain an enormous amount of information embodied in genomes. They have emerging system properties. This timely textbook also looks at how systems ecology is applied in integrated environmental management, particularly in ecological modeling and engineering and in the assessment of ecosystem health using ecological indicators. Acknowledging that there is still much room for improvement, it will inspire ecologists to develop a stronger and more widely applicable ecosystem theory.

Applied Ecology And Environmental Management

Author: Edward I. Newman
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470698179
Size: 19.80 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book explains ways that ecological science can be applied to solving some of the most crucial problems facing our world today. A major theme is how resources can be effectively managed and exploited in as near a sustainable manner as possible. The author draws together, in a single volume, major topics in environmental and resource management that have traditionally been dispersed among several different books. Applied Ecology starts with an analysis of our planet's basic natural resources - energy, water and soil; it moves on to the management of biological resources - fish, grazing lands and forests, and then to pest control and pollution. Finally, the book tackles conservation and management of wild species and the restoration of ecological communities. The second edition of this text has been radically redesigned and rewritten. Each chapter starts with a list of questions, setting out the various fundamental problems to be considered. Interwoven with these practical problems is a clear explanation of the underlying basic science - ecology - studied at scales ranging from global, landscape and ecosystem, down to the population and individual (and even their physiology and genetics). The science is illustrated by examples from every major geographic area of the world. This book is aimed primarily at undergraduate students taking courses in applied ecology, environmental science, environmental management and natural resources management. The author has extensive experience as a university teacher. Like his lectures, this book is scientifically rigorous yet clear and easy to understand. Draws together major topics in environmental and resource management, usually dispersed over many separate books. Questions, summaries and clearly structured chapters enhance usability. Emphasis on clarity and accessibility. Based on a proven and successful course.

Handbook Of Ecological Indicators For Assessment Of Ecosystem Health

Author: Sven E. Jorgensen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203490181
Size: 22.58 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The field of ecosystem health explores the interactions between natural systems, human health, and social organization. As decision makers require a sound, modular approach to environmental management and sustainable development, ecosystem health assessment indicators are increasingly used across any number of applications. The Handbook of Ecological Indicators for Assessment of Ecosystem Health provides a comprehensive account and guidebook to ecological indicators for evaluating the health of a wide variety of ecosystems. The book presents a conceptual framework for selecting, evaluating, and validating ecological indicators of ecosystem health, such as thermodynamics, resilience estimates, exergy, and emergy indicators. This framework is applied in a series of chapters on major ecosystem types, including coastal areas, forests, wetlands, fisheries, and agricultural land. The authors take into account biodiversity, energy needs, ecological economics, and natural capital in their measurement of ecological health. Using material synthesized from a variety of books, journals, and private research, the book presents first-hand accounts of the indicators, used in several different types of ecosystems. Case studies highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each method as well. The Handbook of Ecological Indicators for Assessment of Ecosystem Health explains what is needed to apply the methods and indicators, including theoretical background and modeling techniques, to evaluate the state of a given ecosystem. It will be useful for a wide range of environmental managers, natural resource managers, land use planners, and policy makers in government and non-governmental organizations worldwide.

Integrated Environmental Management

Author: Sven Erik Jørgensen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498705111
Size: 26.94 MB
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Based on 40 years of experience, Integrated Environmental Management: A Transdisciplinary Approach brings together many ecological and technological tool boxes and applies them in a transdisciplinary method. The book demonstrates how to combine continuous improvement management tools and principles with proven environmental assessment methodologies. This integrated ecological and environmental management approach lets you view environmental problems from a holistic angle, considering the ecosystem as an entity as well as the entire spectrum of solutions and possible combinations of solutions. The book discusses the importance of examining all facets or possible problems associated with an ecosystem simultaneously and evaluating all the solution possibilities proposed by the relevant disciplines at the same time. The authors underline that there is no alternative to integrated, multidisciplinary, ecological–environmental management—at least not on a long-term basis. They lay down the fundamental concepts in an applications-oriented manner that allows you to apply the seven steps of environmental management directly. However, the book goes beyond delineating the available tool boxes; it also details how they can be integrated and combined to find an optimum solution to ecological–environmental problems.

Towards A Thermodynamic Theory For Ecological Systems

Author: Sven Erik Jørgensen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080441672
Size: 24.74 MB
Format: PDF
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The book presents a consistent and complete ecosystem theory based on thermodynamic concepts. The first chapters are devoted to an interpretation of the first and second law of thermodynamics in ecosystem context. Then Prigogine's use of far from equilibrium thermodynamic is used on ecosystems to explain their reactions to perturbations. The introduction of the concept exergy makes it possible to give a more profound and comprehensive explanation of the ecosystem's reactions and growth-patterns. A tentative fourth law of thermodynamic is formulated and applied to facilitate these explanations. The trophic chain, the global energy and radiation balance and pattern and the reactions of ecological networks are all explained by the use of exergy. Finally, it is discussed how the presented theory can be applied more widely to explain ecological observations and rules, to assess ecosystem health and to develop ecological models.

A New Ecology

Author: Sven Erik Jørgensen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080497396
Size: 79.10 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A New Ecology presents an ecosystem theory based on the following ecosystem properties: physical openness, ontic openness, directionality, connectivity, a complex dynamic for growth and development, and a complex dynamic response to disturbances. Each of these properties is developed in detail to show that these basic and characteristic properties can be applied to explain a wide spectrum of ecological obsevations and convections. It is also shown that the properties have application for environmental management and for assessment of ecosystem health. * Demonstrates an ecosystem theory that can be applied to explain ecological observations and rules * Presents an ecosystem theory based upon a systems approach * Discusses an ecosystem theory that is based on a few basic properties that are characteristic for ecosystmes

Encyclopedia Of Ecology

Author:
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 008091456X
Size: 72.83 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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The groundbreaking Encyclopedia of Ecology provides an authoritative and comprehensive coverage of the complete field of ecology, from general to applied. It includes over 500 detailed entries, structured to provide the user with complete coverage of the core knowledge, accessed as intuitively as possible, and heavily cross-referenced. Written by an international team of leading experts, this revolutionary encyclopedia will serve as a one-stop-shop to concise, stand-alone articles to be used as a point of entry for undergraduate students, or as a tool for active researchers looking for the latest information in the field. Entries cover a range of topics, including: Behavioral Ecology Ecological Processes Ecological Modeling Ecological Engineering Ecological Indicators Ecological Informatics Ecosystems Ecotoxicology Evolutionary Ecology General Ecology Global Ecology Human Ecology System Ecology The first reference work to cover all aspects of ecology, from basic to applied Over 500 concise, stand-alone articles are written by prominent leaders in the field Article text is supported by full-color photos, drawings, tables, and other visual material Fully indexed and cross referenced with detailed references for further study Writing level is suited to both the expert and non-expert Available electronically on ScienceDirect shortly upon publication

Ecological And General Systems

Author: Howard Thomas Odum
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 29.29 MB
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Using an energy systems language that combines energetics, kinetics, information, cybernetics, and simulation, Ecological and General Systems compares models of many fields of science, helping to derive general systems principles. First published as Systems Ecology in 1983, Ecological and General Systems proposes principles of self-organization and the designs that prevail by maximizing power and efficiency. Comparisons to fifty other systems languages are provided. Innovative presentations are given on earth homeostasis (Gaia); the inadequacy of presenting equations without network relationships and energy constraints; the alternative interpretation of high entropy complexity as adaptive structure; basic equations of ecological economics; and the energy basis of scientific hierarchy. Part I introduces energetics, hierarchy, and systems modeling. Part II features design elements: intersections, autocatalytic modules, loops, series, parallel elements, and webs. Part III includes embodied energy, spectra of energy quality, temperature, complexity, spatial distribution, and diversity. Part IV discusses production, consumption, ecosystems, succession, economic systems, anthropological models, urban and regional models, global biogeochemistry, and the universe.

Systems Analysis And Simulation In Ecology

Author: Bernard C. Patten
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483262774
Size: 43.96 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, Volume II, concludes the original concept for Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, and at the same time initiates a continuing series under the same title. The original idea, in 1968, was to draw together a collection of systems ecology articles as a convenient benchmark to the state of this emerging new field and as a stimulus to broader interest. These purposes will continue to motivate the series in highlighting, from time to time, accomplishments, trends, and prospects. The present volume is organized into four parts. Part I outlines for ecologists the concepts upon which systems science as a discipline is built. Part II presents example applications of systems analysis methods to ecosystems. Part III is devoted to new theory, including an investigation into the feasibility of several nonlinear formulations for use in compartment modeling of ecosystems; and the important topic of connectivity in systems. Part IV presents a sampling of systems ecology applications. It provides a reasonably balanced and accurate picture of the practical capability of ecological systems analysis and simulation. Performance does not come up to publicity, but prospects for rapid improvement are good given a willingness to let pragmatism guide sound scientific development without demanding unrealistic short-term successes.