Introduction To Systems Ecology

Author: Sven Erik Jorgensen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 143985520X
Size: 33.83 MB
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Possibly the first textbook to present a practically applicable ecosystems theory, Introduction to Systems Ecology helps readers understand how ecosystems work and how they react to disturbances. It demonstrates—with many examples and illustrations—how to apply the theory to explain observations and to make quantitative calculations and predictions. In this book, Sven Erik Jørgensen takes a first step toward integrating thermodynamics, biochemistry, hierarchical organization, and network theory into a holistic theory of systems ecology. The first part of the book covers the laws of thermodynamics and the basic biochemistry of living organisms, as well as the constraints they impose on ecosystems. To grow and develop, however, ecosystems have to evade these thermodynamic and biochemical constraints, so the second part of the book discusses the seven basic properties that enable ecosystems to grow, develop, and survive: They are open systems, far from thermodynamic equilibrium. They are organized hierarchically. They have a high diversity. They have high buffer capacities toward changes. Their components are organized in cooperative networks, which allows for sophisticated feedback, regulation mechanisms, and higher efficiencies. They contain an enormous amount of information embodied in genomes. They have emerging system properties. This timely textbook also looks at how systems ecology is applied in integrated environmental management, particularly in ecological modeling and engineering and in the assessment of ecosystem health using ecological indicators. Acknowledging that there is still much room for improvement, it will inspire ecologists to develop a stronger and more widely applicable ecosystem theory.

Introduction To Systems Ecology

Author: Sven Erik Jorgensen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1842145568
Size: 47.26 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 2605
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Possibly the first textbook to present a practically applicable ecosystems theory, Introduction to Systems Ecology helps readers understand how ecosystems work and how they react to disturbances. It demonstrates—with many examples and illustrations—how to apply the theory to explain observations and to make quantitative calculations and predictions. In this book, Sven Erik Jørgensen takes a first step toward integrating thermodynamics, biochemistry, hierarchical organization, and network theory into a holistic theory of systems ecology. The first part of the book covers the laws of thermodynamics and the basic biochemistry of living organisms, as well as the constraints they impose on ecosystems. To grow and develop, however, ecosystems have to evade these thermodynamic and biochemical constraints, so the second part of the book discusses the seven basic properties that enable ecosystems to grow, develop, and survive: They are open systems, far from thermodynamic equilibrium. They are organized hierarchically. They have a high diversity. They have high buffer capacities toward changes. Their components are organized in cooperative networks, which allows for sophisticated feedback, regulation mechanisms, and higher efficiencies. They contain an enormous amount of information embodied in genomes. They have emerging system properties. This timely textbook also looks at how systems ecology is applied in integrated environmental management, particularly in ecological modeling and engineering and in the assessment of ecosystem health using ecological indicators. Acknowledging that there is still much room for improvement, it will inspire ecologists to develop a stronger and more widely applicable ecosystem theory.

Applied Ecology And Environmental Management

Author: Edward I. Newman
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470698179
Size: 21.71 MB
Format: PDF
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This book explains ways that ecological science can be applied to solving some of the most crucial problems facing our world today. A major theme is how resources can be effectively managed and exploited in as near a sustainable manner as possible. The author draws together, in a single volume, major topics in environmental and resource management that have traditionally been dispersed among several different books. Applied Ecology starts with an analysis of our planet's basic natural resources - energy, water and soil; it moves on to the management of biological resources - fish, grazing lands and forests, and then to pest control and pollution. Finally, the book tackles conservation and management of wild species and the restoration of ecological communities. The second edition of this text has been radically redesigned and rewritten. Each chapter starts with a list of questions, setting out the various fundamental problems to be considered. Interwoven with these practical problems is a clear explanation of the underlying basic science - ecology - studied at scales ranging from global, landscape and ecosystem, down to the population and individual (and even their physiology and genetics). The science is illustrated by examples from every major geographic area of the world. This book is aimed primarily at undergraduate students taking courses in applied ecology, environmental science, environmental management and natural resources management. The author has extensive experience as a university teacher. Like his lectures, this book is scientifically rigorous yet clear and easy to understand. Draws together major topics in environmental and resource management, usually dispersed over many separate books. Questions, summaries and clearly structured chapters enhance usability. Emphasis on clarity and accessibility. Based on a proven and successful course.

Integrated Environmental Management

Author: Sven Erik Jørgensen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498705111
Size: 30.33 MB
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Based on 40 years of experience, Integrated Environmental Management: A Transdisciplinary Approach brings together many ecological and technological tool boxes and applies them in a transdisciplinary method. The book demonstrates how to combine continuous improvement management tools and principles with proven environmental assessment methodologies. This integrated ecological and environmental management approach lets you view environmental problems from a holistic angle, considering the ecosystem as an entity as well as the entire spectrum of solutions and possible combinations of solutions. The book discusses the importance of examining all facets or possible problems associated with an ecosystem simultaneously and evaluating all the solution possibilities proposed by the relevant disciplines at the same time. The authors underline that there is no alternative to integrated, multidisciplinary, ecological–environmental management—at least not on a long-term basis. They lay down the fundamental concepts in an applications-oriented manner that allows you to apply the seven steps of environmental management directly. However, the book goes beyond delineating the available tool boxes; it also details how they can be integrated and combined to find an optimum solution to ecological–environmental problems.

Systems Analysis And Simulation In Ecology

Author: Bernard C. Patten
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483262731
Size: 14.68 MB
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Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, Volume III, and its companion, Volume IV, grew out of a symposium, Modeling and Analysis of Ecosystems, held at the University of Georgia, 1-3 March 1973. The purposes of the meeting were to (i) review the status of ecosystem modeling, simulation, and analysis; (ii) provide a forum for interaction between U.S. International Biological Program (IBP) Biome modeling programs and selected non-IBP investigations involving systems approaches to ecosystem analysis; and (iii) identify and promote dialogue on key issues in macrosystem modeling. The volume is organized into two parts. Part I treats ecosystem modeling in the U.S. IBP. The introductory chapter is followed by five chapters describing grassland, deciduous forest, desert, tundra, and coniferous forest biome modeling. The concluding chapter is one of critique and evaluation. Part II is devoted mainly to freshwater ecosystems, grading into the estuarine system in the last chapter. The five chapters of this section encompass a simple thermal ecosystem, small woodland streams, a reservoir, one of the Great Lakes, a lake reclaimed from eutrophication, and a major estuary under stress of human impact.

Towards A Thermodynamic Theory For Ecological Systems

Author: Sven Erik Jørgensen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080441672
Size: 13.53 MB
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The book presents a consistent and complete ecosystem theory based on thermodynamic concepts. The first chapters are devoted to an interpretation of the first and second law of thermodynamics in ecosystem context. Then Prigogine's use of far from equilibrium thermodynamic is used on ecosystems to explain their reactions to perturbations. The introduction of the concept exergy makes it possible to give a more profound and comprehensive explanation of the ecosystem's reactions and growth-patterns. A tentative fourth law of thermodynamic is formulated and applied to facilitate these explanations. The trophic chain, the global energy and radiation balance and pattern and the reactions of ecological networks are all explained by the use of exergy. Finally, it is discussed how the presented theory can be applied more widely to explain ecological observations and rules, to assess ecosystem health and to develop ecological models.

Ecological And General Systems

Author: Howard Thomas Odum
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 39.54 MB
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Using an energy systems language that combines energetics, kinetics, information, cybernetics, and simulation, Ecological and General Systems compares models of many fields of science, helping to derive general systems principles. First published as Systems Ecology in 1983, Ecological and General Systems proposes principles of self-organization and the designs that prevail by maximizing power and efficiency. Comparisons to fifty other systems languages are provided. Innovative presentations are given on earth homeostasis (Gaia); the inadequacy of presenting equations without network relationships and energy constraints; the alternative interpretation of high entropy complexity as adaptive structure; basic equations of ecological economics; and the energy basis of scientific hierarchy. Part I introduces energetics, hierarchy, and systems modeling. Part II features design elements: intersections, autocatalytic modules, loops, series, parallel elements, and webs. Part III includes embodied energy, spectra of energy quality, temperature, complexity, spatial distribution, and diversity. Part IV discusses production, consumption, ecosystems, succession, economic systems, anthropological models, urban and regional models, global biogeochemistry, and the universe.

Ecological Processes Handbook

Author: Luca Palmeri
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466558482
Size: 77.73 MB
Format: PDF
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Ecology is a cross-disciplinary field involving many different aspects of science. Written with this in mind, this book introduces ecological processes, ranging from physical processes, to chemical processes and biological processes. It contains all the necessary information on an ecological process: a clear, detailed but not too lengthy definition; some practical examples, the main mathematical models which have been used to describe the process, and the key interconnections with other ecological processes that must be known in order to apply what has been learned from the book.

A New Ecology

Author: Sven Erik Jørgensen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080497396
Size: 22.39 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A New Ecology presents an ecosystem theory based on the following ecosystem properties: physical openness, ontic openness, directionality, connectivity, a complex dynamic for growth and development, and a complex dynamic response to disturbances. Each of these properties is developed in detail to show that these basic and characteristic properties can be applied to explain a wide spectrum of ecological obsevations and convections. It is also shown that the properties have application for environmental management and for assessment of ecosystem health. * Demonstrates an ecosystem theory that can be applied to explain ecological observations and rules * Presents an ecosystem theory based upon a systems approach * Discusses an ecosystem theory that is based on a few basic properties that are characteristic for ecosystmes

Applied Urban Ecology

Author: Matthias Richter
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444345001
Size: 57.41 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Applied Urban Ecology: A Global Framework explores ways in which the environmental quality of urban areas can be improved starting with existing environmental conditions and their dynamics. Written by an internationally renowned selection of scientists and practitioners, the book covers a broad range of established and novel approaches to applied urban ecology. Approaches chosen for the book are placed in the context of issues such as climate change, green- and open-space development, flood-risk assessment, threats to urban biodiversity, and increasing environmental pollution (especially in the “megacities” of newly industrialized countries). All topics covered were chosen because they are socially and socio-politically relevant today. Further topics covered include sustainable energy and budget management, urban water resource management, urban land management, and urban landscape planning and design. Throughout the book, concepts and methods are illustrated using case studies from around the world. A closing synopsis draws conclusions on how the findings of urban ecological research can be used in strategic urban management in the future. Applied Urban Ecology: A Global Framework is an advanced textbook for students, researchers and experienced practitioners in urban ecology and urban environmental research, planning, and practice.