International Tables For Crystallography Space Group Symmetry

Author: Theo Hahn
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 0792365909
Size: 64.24 MB
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International Tables for Crystallography is the definitive resource and reference work for crystallography and structural science. Each of the eight volumes in the series contains articles and tables of data relevant to crystallographic research and to applications of crystallographic methods in all sciences concerned with the structure and properties of materials. Emphasis is given to symmetry, diffraction methods and techniques of crystal-structure determination, and the physical and chemical properties of crystals. The data are accompanied by discussions of theory, practical explanations and examples, all of which are useful for teaching. Volume A treats crystallographic symmetry in direct or physical space. It contains extensive tabulations and illustrations of the 17 plane groups, the 230 space groups and the 32 crystallographic point groups. Parts 1-5 of the volume present introductory material, including lists of symbols and terms, a guide to the use of the space-group tables, and the determination of space groups. Later parts discuss aspects of symmetry theory, such as crystal lattices and normalizers of space groups. Thoroughly updated and improved, the latest edition of Volume A includes an additional chapter on further properties of lattices.

International Tables For Crystallography Symmetry Relations Between Space Groups

Author: Hans Wondratschek
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 9781402023552
Size: 34.39 MB
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International Tables for Crystallography is the definitive resource and reference work for crystallography and structural science. Each of the eight volumes in the series contains articles and tables of data relevant to crystallographic research and to applications of crystallographic methods in all sciences concerned with the structure and properties of materials. Emphasis is given to symmetry, diffraction methods and techniques of crystal-structure determination, and the physical and chemical properties of crystals. The data are accompanied by discussions of theory, practical explanations and examples, all of which are useful for teaching. This volume presents a systematic treatment of the maximal subgroups and minimal supergroups of the crystallographic plane groups and space groups. It is an extension of and a supplement to Volume A, Space-group symmetry, in which only basic data for sub- and supergroups are provided. Group-subgroup relations, apart from their theoretical interest, are the basis of a number of important applications in crystallographic research: (1) In solid-state phase transitions there often exists a group-subgroup relation between the symmetry groups of the two phases. According to Landau theory, this is in fact mandatory for displacive (continuous, second-order) phase transitions. Group-subgroup relations are also indispensable in cases where the symmetry groups of the two phases are not directly related but share a common subgroup or supergroup. (2) Group-subgroup relations provide a concise and powerful tool for revealing and elucidating relations between crystal structures. They can thus help to keep up with the ever-increasing amount of crystal-structure data. Their application requires knowledge of the relations of the Wyckoff positions of group-subgroup related structures. (3) Group-subgroup relations are of great importance in the study of twinned crystals, domain structures and domain boundaries. (4) These relations can even help to identify errors in space-group assignment and crystal-structure determination. (5) Subgroups of space groups provide a valuable approach to teaching crystallographic symmetry. Volume A1 consists of three parts: Part 1 presents an introduction to the theory of space groups at various levels and with many examples. It includes a chapter on the mathematical theory of subgroups. Part 2 gives for each plane group and space group a complete listing of all maximal subgroups and minimal supergroups. The treatment includes the generators of each subgroup as well as any necessary changes of the coordinate system. Maximal isomorphic subgroups are given in parameterized form as infinite series because of the infinite number for each group. A special feature of the presentation is graphs that illustrate the group-subgroup relations. Part 3 lists the relations between the Wyckoff positions of every space group and its subgroups. Again, the infinite number of maximal isomorphic subgroups of each space group are covered by parameterized series. These data for Wyckoff positions are presented here for the first time. Audience: The volume is a valuable addition to the library of scientists engaged in crystal-structure determination, crystal physics or crystal chemistry. It is essential for those interested in phase transitions, the systematic compilation of crystal structures, twinning phenomena and related fields of crystallographic research.

International Tables For Crystallography 5th Edition

Author: C. P. Brock
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 9781119362296
Size: 12.14 MB
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International Tables for Crystallography is the definitive resource and reference work for crystallography and structural science. Each of the eight volumes in the series contains articles and tables of data relevant to crystallographic research and to applications of crystallographic methods in all sciences concerned with the structure and properties of materials. Emphasis is given to symmetry, diffraction methods and techniques of crystal-structure determination, and the physical and chemical properties of crystals. The data are accompanied by discussions of theory, practical explanations and examples, all of which are useful for teaching. International Tables for Crystallography comprises more than 6,000 pages including nearly 2,000 pages of symmetry tables which are vital for the analysis of crystal structures: Volume A: Space-group symmetry, 6e Volume A1: Symmetry relations between space groups, 2e Volume B: Reciprocal space, 3e Volume C: Mathematical, physical and chemical tables, 3e Volume D: Physical properties of crystals, 2e Volume E: Subperiodic groups, 2e Volume F: Crystallography of biological macromolecules, 2e Volume G: Definition and exchange of crystallographic data This edition includes a new edition of Volume A, making International Tables the most up-to-date, dynamic, and comprehensive reference work available to crystallographers, and to all those who use crystallography across a wide range of fields.

Symmetry In Crystallography

Author: Paolo Radaelli
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199550654
Size: 63.80 MB
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A fresh approach to teaching crystallographic symmetry. Rather than being swamped by heavy algebraic notation, the reader is taken through a series of simple and beautiful examples from the visual arts, and taught how to analyse them employing the 'pictorial' diagrams used in the International Tables of Crystallography.

International Tables For Crystallography Reciprocal Space

Author: Uri Shmueli
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402082054
Size: 67.58 MB
Format: PDF
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International Tables for Crystallography are no longer available for purchase from Springer. For further information please contact Wiley Inc. (follow the link on the right hand side of this page). Volume B presents accounts of the numerous aspects of reciprocal space in crystallographic research. After an introductory chapter, Part 1 presents the reader with an account of structure-factor formalisms, an extensive treatment of the theory, algorithms and crystallographic applications of Fourier methods, and fundamental as well as advanced treatments of symmetry in reciprocal space. In Part 2, these general accounts are followed by detailed expositions of crystallographic statistics, the theory of direct methods, Patterson techniques, isomorphous replacement and anomalous scattering, and treatments of the role of electron microscopy and diffraction in crystal structure determination, including applications of direct methods to electron crystallography. Part 3 deals with applications of reciprocal space to molecular geometry and `best'-plane calculations, and contains a treatment of the principles of molecular graphics and modelling and their applications. A convergence-acceleration method of importance in the computation of approximate lattice sums is presented and the part concludes with a discussion of the Ewald method. Part 4 contains treatments of various diffuse-scattering phenomena arising from crystal dynamics, disorder and low dimensionality (liquid crystals), and an exposition of the underlying theories and/or experimental evidence. Polymer crystallography and reciprocal-space images of aperiodic crystals are also treated. Part 5 of the volume contains introductory treatments of the theory of the interaction of radiation with matter (dynamical theory) as applied to X-ray, electron and neutron diffraction techniques. The simplified trigonometric expressions for the structure factors in the 230 three-dimensional space groups, which appeared in Volume I of International Tables for X-ray Crystallography, are now given in Appendix 1.4.3 to Chapter 1.4 of this volume. Volume B is a vital addition to the library of scientists engaged in crystal structure determination, crystallographic computing, crystal physics and other fields of crystallographic research. Graduate students specializing in crystallography will find much material suitable for self-study and a rich source of references to the relevant literature.

Crystallography

Author: A. M. Glazer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198717598
Size: 69.41 MB
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Crystals have fascinated us for centuries with their beauty and symmetry, and have often been invested with magical powers. The use of X-ray diffraction, first pioneered in 1912 by father and son William and Lawrence Bragg, enabled us to probe the structure of molecules, and heralded the scientific study of crystals, leading to an understanding of their atomic arrangements at a fundamental level. The new discipline, called X-ray crystallography, has subsequently evolved into a formidable science that underpins many other scientific areas. Starting from the determination of the structures of very simple crystals, such as that of common salt, today it has become almost routine to determine the positions of tens of thousands of atoms in a crystal. In this Very Short Introduction Mike Glazer shows how the discoveries in crystallography have been applied to the creation of new and important materials, to drugs and pharmaceuticals and to our understanding of genetics, cell biology, proteins, and viruses. Tracing the history of crystallography, he analyses astonishing developments in new sources of X-rays, as well as of neutrons, and in electron microscopy, and considers the impact they have on the study of crystals today. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Structure Of Materials

Author: Marc De Graef
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139560476
Size: 40.96 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This highly readable, popular textbook for upper undergraduates and graduates comprehensively covers the fundamentals of crystallography and symmetry, applying these concepts to a large range of materials. New to this edition are more streamlined coverage of crystallography, additional coverage of magnetic point group symmetry and updated material on extraterrestrial minerals and rocks. New exercises at the end of chapters, plus over 500 additional exercises available online, allow students to check their understanding of key concepts and put into practice what they have learnt. Over 400 illustrations within the text help students visualise crystal structures and more abstract mathematical objects, supporting more difficult topics like point group symmetries. Historical and biographical sections add colour and interest by giving an insight into those who have contributed significantly to the field. Supplementary online material includes password-protected solutions, over 100 crystal structure data files, and Powerpoints of figures from the book.