Intelligence Testing And Minority Students

Author: Richard R. Valencia
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9780761912316
Size: 32.28 MB
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Intelligence Testing and Minority Students offers the reader a fresh opportunity to re-learn and re-consider the implications of intelligence testing. Richard R. Valencia and Lisa A. Suzuki discuss the strengths and limitations of IQ testing relative to the factors which may contribute to biased results. They review the history of the adaptation and adoption of intelligence testing; evaluate the heredity-environment debate; discuss the specific performance factors which apply to IQ testing of those in minority ethnic groups. This practical book offers the practitioner a good sense of what can be done to make testing and education serve the needs of all students fairly and validly, whatever their background.

The Black White Test Score Gap

Author: Christopher Jencks
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815746119
Size: 28.98 MB
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The test score gap between blacks and whites--on vocabulary, reading, and math tests, as well as on tests that claim to measure scholastic aptitude and intelligence--is large enough to have far-reaching social and economic consequences. In their introduction to this book, Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips argue that eliminating the disparity would dramatically reduce economic and educational inequality between blacks and whites. Indeed, they think that closing the gap would do more to promote racial equality than any other strategy now under serious discussion. The book offers a comprehensive look at the factors that contribute to the test score gap and discusses options for substantially reducing it. Although significant attempts have been made over the past three decades to shrink the test score gap, including increased funding for predominantly black schools, desegregation of southern schools, and programs to alleviate poverty, the median black American still scores below 75 percent of American whites on most standardized tests. The book brings together recent evidence on some of the most controversial and puzzling aspects of the test score debate, including the role of test bias, heredity, and family background. It also looks at how and why the gap has changed over the past generation, reviews the educational, psychological, and cultural explanations for the gap, and analyzes its educational and economic consequences. The authors demonstrate that traditional explanations account for only a small part of the black-white test score gap. They argue that this is partly because traditional explanations have put too much emphasis on racial disparities in economic resources, both in homes and in schools, and on demographic factors like family structure. They say that successful theories will put more emphasis on psychological and cultural factors, such as the way black and white parents teach their children to deal with things they do not know or understand, and the way black and white children respond to the same classroom experiences. Finally, they call for large-scale experiments to determine the effects of schools' racial mix, class size, ability grouping, and other policies. In addition to the editors, the contributors include Claude Steele, Ronald Ferguson, William G. Bowen, Philip Cook, and William Julius Wilson.

Bias In Mental Testing

Author: Arthur Robert Jensen
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 51.12 MB
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Illuminating detailed methods for assessing bias in commonly used I.Q., aptitude, and achievement tests, Jensen argues that standardized tests are not biased against Englishspeaking minority groups and describes the uses of such tests in education and emp

Perspectives On Bias In Mental Testing

Author: Cecil Reynolds
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468446584
Size: 16.54 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The cultural-test-bias hypothesis is one of the most important scien tific questions facing psychology today. Briefly, the cultural-test-bias hypothesis contends that all observed group differences in mental test scores are due to a built-in cultural bias of the tests themselves; that is, group score differences are an artifact of current psychomet ric methodology. If the cultural-test-bias hypothesis is ultimately shown to be correct, then the 100 years or so of psychological research on human differences (or differential psychology, the sci entific discipline underlying all applied areas of human psychology including clinical, counseling, school, and industrial psychology) must be reexamined and perhaps dismissed as confounded, contam inated, or otherwise artifactual. In order to continue its existence as a scientific discipline, psychology must confront the cultural-test-bias hypothesis from the solid foundations of data and theory and must not allow the resolution of this issue to occur solely within (and to be determined by) the political Zeitgeist of the times or any singular work, no matter how comprehensive. In his recent volume Bias in Mental Testing (New York: Free Press, 1980), Arthur Jensen provided a thorough review of most of the empirical research relevant to the evaluation of cultural bias in psychological and educational tests that was available at the time that his book was prepared. Nevertheless, Jensen presented only one per spective on those issues in a volume intended not only for the sci entific community but for intelligent laypeople as well.

Minority Students In Special And Gifted Education

Author: Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309074398
Size: 48.47 MB
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Special education and gifted and talented programs were designed for children whose educational needs are not well met in regular classrooms. From their inceptions, these programs have had disproportionate representation of racial and ethnic minority students. What causes this disproportion? Is it a problem? Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education considers possible contributors to that disparity, including early biological and environmental influences and inequities in opportunities for preschool and K-12 education, as well as the possibilities of bias in the referral and assessment system that leads to placement in special programs. It examines the data on early childhood experience, on differences in educational opportunity, and on referral and placement. The book also considers whether disproportionate representation should be considered a problem. Do special education programs provide valuable educational services, or do they set students off on a path of lower educational expectations? Would students not now placed in gifted and talented programs benefit from raised expectations, more rigorous classes, and the gifted label, or would they suffer failure in classes for which they are unprepared? By examining this important problem in U.S. education and making recommendations for early intervention and general education, as well as for changes in referral and assessment processes, Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education will be an indispensable resource to educators throughout the nation, as well as to policy makers at all levels, from schools and school districts to the state and federal governments.

Assessing Intelligence In Children And Adolescents

Author: John H. Kranzler
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 146251121X
Size: 57.27 MB
Format: PDF
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"Subject Areas/Keywords: adolescents, assessments, children, cognitive assessment, elementary, giftedness, intellectual assessment, intellectual disabilities, intelligence testing, IQ, learning disabilities, psychological assessment reports, psychometrics, response to intervention, RTI, school psychology, secondary, SLD, specific learning disability, tests"--

Principles And Applications Of Assessment In Counseling

Author: Susan C. Whiston
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1305856031
Size: 26.88 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This comprehensive introduction to assessment, created specifically for counseling students, presents mathematical and statistical concepts in a simple and useful manner. The book stresses the importance of counselors being good consumers of assessment tools, helping them avoid misusing tools in manners that can be harmful to clients. Updated throughout, PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS OF ASSESSMENT IN COUNSELING, 5th Edition includes material on the DSM-5 and corresponds to the 2014 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing as well as to the 2016 CACREP Standards. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

The Rising Curve

Author: American Psychological Association
Publisher: Amer Psychological Assn
ISBN: 9781557985033
Size: 65.27 MB
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Psychometricians have discovered a trend showing that IQ scores in children have shown a significant rise over the past 50 years, and scores between white and minority students are converging. This trend, dubbed the Flynn Effect after James Flynn, the social scientist who first documented it, is the focus of this book. Is it possible to compare IQ scores from one generation to the next? Which environmental factors most affect IQ? What kind of intelligence does psychometric tests actually measure? Leading experts in nutrition, psychometric research, sociology and cognitive, social and developmental psychology debate the source of the Flynn Effect, along with the much-discussed dysgenic hypothesis, made popular by Charles Murray in The Bell Curve. This should be useful to those who seek the latest scholarship on intelligence and its measure.

Minority Students In Special And Gifted Education

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309170818
Size: 76.68 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 487
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Special education and gifted and talented programs were designed for children whose educational needs are not well met in regular classrooms. From their inceptions, these programs have had disproportionate representation of racial and ethnic minority students. What causes this disproportion? Is it a problem? Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education considers possible contributors to that disparity, including early biological and environmental influences and inequities in opportunities for preschool and K-12 education, as well as the possibilities of bias in the referral and assessment system that leads to placement in special programs. It examines the data on early childhood experience, on differences in educational opportunity, and on referral and placement. The book also considers whether disproportionate representation should be considered a problem. Do special education programs provide valuable educational services, or do they set students off on a path of lower educational expectations? Would students not now placed in gifted and talented programs benefit from raised expectations, more rigorous classes, and the gifted label, or would they suffer failure in classes for which they are unprepared? By examining this important problem in U.S. education and making recommendations for early intervention and general education, as well as for changes in referral and assessment processes, Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education will be an indispensable resource to educators throughout the nation, as well as to policy makers at all levels, from schools and school districts to the state and federal governments.