Improving Skills Development In The Informal Sector

Author: Arvil V. Adams
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821399691
Size: 33.45 MB
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This book uses household surveys in five countries of Sub-Saharan Africa to describe employment off the farm in the region s growing informal sector and assesses how different forms of education and training, including apprenticeships, influence choices in employment and earnings.

Improving Skills Development In The Informal Sector

Author: Arvil V. Adams
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821399682
Size: 52.76 MB
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The informal sector of Sub-Saharan Africa is comprised of small and household enterprises that operate in the non-farm sector outside the protected employment of the formal wage sector. The sector was identified 40 years ago by the ILO representing a pool of surplus labor that was expected to be absorbed by future industrialization, but rather than gradually disappearing, it has become a persistent feature of the region’s economic landscape accounting for a majority of jobs created off the farm. Acknowledging its potential as a source of employment for the region’s expanding workforce and improving its productivity and earnings is recognized as a priority for poverty reduction. This study examines the role played by education and skills development in achieving this objective. Until now, few studies have used household labor force surveys to capture the skills profile of the informal sector and study how different means of skills development – formal education, technical and vocational education and training, apprenticeships, and learning on the job -- shape productivity and earnings in the informal sector as compared with the formal wage sector. This study uses household labor force surveys to look at the experience of skills development in five African countries – Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, and Tanzania – that together account for one-third of the nearly 900 million persons living in SSA. The study defines the non-farm informal sector as the self-employed (own account and with workers), contributing family members, and wage workers in small and household enterprises. Of the nearly 36 million working off the farm in the five countries, 7 out of 10 are working in the informal sector. The importance of this study is its quantitative assessment of how different sources of skills development are related to the sector in which one works and the earnings received in that sector. It further highlights a set of economic constraints to acquiring skills in the small and household enterprises of the informal sector that will have to be overcome if skills are to become a means for improving productivity and earnings in this sector. The study offers a comprehensive strategy for improving employment outcomes in the informal sector through skills development with examples of successful interventions taken from international experience and the five countries.

Skills Development In Sub Saharan Africa

Author: Richard K. Johanson
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821356807
Size: 27.40 MB
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This publication reviews recent developments within technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as future challenges in skills development in the region. Based upon 70 case studies covering 20 countries, it provides a good starting point for the development of country policies and programmes, of relevance to other African regions as well as countries in other regions facing similar challenges. Issues discussed include: the labour market context, reform of public training programmes, regulation of non-government training institutions, enterprise-based training, building skills for the informal economy, balancing cost-effectiveness with growth and equity, and financing.

Putting Nigeria To Work

Author: Volker Treichel
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821380734
Size: 54.89 MB
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Public debate in Nigeria on the country s progress since its return to democracy in 1999 has been dominated by two seemingly opposite themes. The first theme is the strong growth performance of the non-oil economy. This success has been marked by sharp increases in agriculture, trade, and construction and by the emergence of new industries in the financial, telecommunications, and entertainment sectors, supported by sound macroeconomic policies and structural reforms. The second, opposing theme is the seeming failure of Nigeria s much improved economic performance to reduce unemployment, especially among the young. Rising levels of unemployment have increased militancy among the young and impacted negatively on public order. 'Putting Nigeria to Work: A Strategy for Employment and Growth' looks at the ways in which Nigeria s improved economic performance has impacted the labor market. A number of relevant factors are carefully examined and analyzed, including industrial policy and the investment environment, the effects of restrictive trade policies on growth, and the ability of the technical and vocational education system to address the country s skills gap. The book proposes a strategy that will allow Nigeria to increase the availability of quality jobs, reduce rising youth unemployment, and sustain and further accelerate the country s economic performance and growth. At the core of this strategy are targeted interventions aimed at removing binding constraints to growth in sectors of the economy that are already growing fast, but have the potential to grow faster and have significant employment-creating potential.

Working Out Of Poverty

Author: M. Louise Fox
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821374435
Size: 23.89 MB
Format: PDF
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"This book reviews the literature and presents original research by the authors analyzing job creation in Sub-Saharan Africa in light of economic performance over the decade and more since 1995. The book identifies factors that impact job creation, both inside the labor market (such as labor supply and demand) and outside of it (overall investment climate)."--Jacket.

Youth Employment In Sub Saharan Africa

Author: Deon Filmer
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464801088
Size: 23.54 MB
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This book focuses on how to improve the quality of jobs and meet the aspirations of youth in Sub-Saharan Africa. It finds that a strong foundation for human capital development can be key to boosting earnings, arguing for a balanced approach that builds skills and demand for labor.

Out Of School Youth In Sub Saharan Africa

Author: Keiko Inoue
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464805067
Size: 33.72 MB
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The economic and social prospects are daunting for the 89 million out-of-school youth who comprise nearly half of all youth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Within the next decade, when this cohort becomes the core of the labor market, an estimated 40 million more youth will drop out, and will face an uncertain future with limited work and life skills. Furthermore, out-of-school youth often are “policy orphans,†? positioned between sectors with little data, low implementation capacity, lack of interest in long-term sustainability of programs, insufficient funds, and little coordination across the different government agencies. This report provides a diagnostic analysis of the state of out-of-school youth in Sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on the 12- to 24-year-old cohort. This report also examines the decision path youth take as they progress through the education system and the factors that explain youth’s school and work choices. It finds that individual and household characteristics, social norms, and characteristics of the school system all matter in understanding why youth drop out and remain out of school. In particular, six key factors characterize out-of-school youth: (i) most out-of-school youth drop out before secondary school; (ii) early marriage for female youth and (iii) rural residence increase the likelihood of being out of school; (iv) parental education level and (v) the number of working adults are important household factors; and (vi) lack of school access and low educational quality are binding supply-side constraints. Policy discussions on out-of-school youth are framed by these six key factors along with three entry points for intervention: retention, remediation, and integration. This report also reviews policies and programs in place for out-of-school youth across the continent. Ultimately, this report aims to inform public discussion, policy formulation, and development practitioners’ actions working with youth in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Fostering Skills In Cameroon

Author: Shobhana Sosale
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464807639
Size: 57.21 MB
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Cameroon has strong goals for its growth and development. By 2035, it aims to be an emerging economy. The country’s medium-term goals are focused on alleviating poverty, consolidating democracy, and achieving national unity—while respecting diversity. This report contributes substantively to the Government’s vision on Strategy for Growth and Employment, putting human development and employment at center stage. Cameroon faces three main challenges: • Developing more robust formal and informal employment opportunities by strengthening human development. • Increasing productivity in agriculture, mining, and key value chains (timber, tourism, and information and communication technology). • Advancing growth by investing in infrastructure and improving the business climate and regional integration. The Strategy sets a target for reducing underemployment from 76 percent of the workforce to 50 by 2020 by creating tens of thousands of formal jobs. But based on results from the first two years of its implementation, the strategy is far from achieving that target. This report is meant to support Cameroon’s efforts to build the skills of its workers. This report reaches conclusions and offers policy recommendations to answer six questions: • What has been the trajectory of Cameroon’s economic growth? Which sectors have contributed to growth? • What jobs are being created? • What types of skills are being used in the sectors where the highest percentages of the population are employed? • What are the demand and supply barriers to skills? • Which policies and institutions are in play? Are they sufficient? • What needs to or could be reformed? Cameroon has good prospects for moving to middle-income status. It can create a more dynamic, responsive workforce. But a new strategy is required. It can be done.This report proposes new directions and provides recommendations. Outcomes are expected. Work has never been easy. But many have been working—and Cameroon can work.

Gender And Economic Growth In Kenya

Author:
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821369202
Size: 55.83 MB
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This book examines the legal, administrative, and regulatory barriers that are preventing women in Kenya from contributing fully to the Kenyan economy. Building on the 2004 FIAS Improving the Commercial Legal Framework and Removing Administrative and Regulatory Barriers to Investment report, this study looks at the bureaucratic barriers facing women in Kenya through a gender lens.

Gender Time Use And Poverty In Sub Saharan Africa

Author: C. Mark Blackden
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821365622
Size: 28.53 MB
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The papers in this volume examine the links between gender, time use, and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. They contribute to a broader definition of poverty to include "time poverty," and to a broader definition of work to include household work. The papers present a conceptual framework linking both market and household work, review some of the available literature and surveys on time use in Africa, and use tools and approaches drawn from analysis of consumption-based poverty to develop the concept of a time poverty line and to examine linkages between time poverty, consumption poverty, and ot.