How To Solve It

Author: G. Polya
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400828678
Size: 41.27 MB
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A perennial bestseller by eminent mathematician G. Polya, How to Solve It will show anyone in any field how to think straight. In lucid and appealing prose, Polya reveals how the mathematical method of demonstrating a proof or finding an unknown can be of help in attacking any problem that can be "reasoned" out—from building a bridge to winning a game of anagrams. Generations of readers have relished Polya's deft—indeed, brilliant—instructions on stripping away irrelevancies and going straight to the heart of the problem.

The Stanford Mathematics Problem Book

Author: George Polya
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 048631832X
Size: 34.29 MB
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Based on Stanford University's well-known competitive exam, this excellent mathematics workbook offers students at both high school and college levels a complete set of problems, hints, and solutions. 1974 edition.

Notes On Introductory Combinatorics

Author: George Polya
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475711018
Size: 64.27 MB
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In the winter of 1978, Professor George P61ya and I jointly taught Stanford University's introductory combinatorics course. This was a great opportunity for me, as I had known of Professor P61ya since having read his classic book, How to Solve It, as a teenager. Working with P6lya, who ·was over ninety years old at the time, was every bit as rewarding as I had hoped it would be. His creativity, intelligence, warmth and generosity of spirit, and wonderful gift for teaching continue to be an inspiration to me. Combinatorics is one of the branches of mathematics that play a crucial role in computer sCience, since digital computers manipulate discrete, finite objects. Combinatorics impinges on computing in two ways. First, the properties of graphs and other combinatorial objects lead directly to algorithms for solving graph-theoretic problems, which have widespread application in non-numerical as well as in numerical computing. Second, combinatorial methods provide many analytical tools that can be used for determining the worst-case and expected performance of computer algorithms. A knowledge of combinatorics will serve the computer scientist well. Combinatorics can be classified into three types: enumerative, eXistential, and constructive. Enumerative combinatorics deals with the counting of combinatorial objects. Existential combinatorics studies the existence or nonexistence of combinatorial configurations.

Mathematical Thinking And Problem Solving

Author: Alan H. Schoenfeld
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113544093X
Size: 60.86 MB
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In the early 1980s there was virtually no serious communication among the various groups that contribute to mathematics education -- mathematicians, mathematics educators, classroom teachers, and cognitive scientists. Members of these groups came from different traditions, had different perspectives, and rarely gathered in the same place to discuss issues of common interest. Part of the problem was that there was no common ground for the discussions -- given the disparate traditions and perspectives. As one way of addressing this problem, the Sloan Foundation funded two conferences in the mid-1980s, bringing together members of the different communities in a ground clearing effort, designed to establish a base for communication. In those conferences, interdisciplinary teams reviewed major topic areas and put together distillations of what was known about them.* A more recent conference -- upon which this volume is based -- offered a forum in which various people involved in education reform would present their work, and members of the broad communities gathered would comment on it. The focus was primarily on college mathematics, informed by developments in K-12 mathematics. The main issues of the conference were mathematical thinking and problem solving.

Mathematical Methods In Elasticity Imaging

Author: Habib Ammari
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400866626
Size: 80.52 MB
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This book is the first to comprehensively explore elasticity imaging and examines recent, important developments in asymptotic imaging, modeling, and analysis of deterministic and stochastic elastic wave propagation phenomena. It derives the best possible functional images for small inclusions and cracks within the context of stability and resolution, and introduces a topological derivative–based imaging framework for detecting elastic inclusions in the time-harmonic regime. For imaging extended elastic inclusions, accurate optimal control methodologies are designed and the effects of uncertainties of the geometric or physical parameters on stability and resolution properties are evaluated. In particular, the book shows how localized damage to a mechanical structure affects its dynamic characteristics, and how measured eigenparameters are linked to elastic inclusion or crack location, orientation, and size. Demonstrating a novel method for identifying, locating, and estimating inclusions and cracks in elastic structures, the book opens possibilities for a mathematical and numerical framework for elasticity imaging of nanoparticles and cellular structures.

What Is Mathematics

Author: Richard Courant
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195105193
Size: 58.80 MB
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A discussion of fundamental mathematical principles from algebra to elementary calculus designed to promote constructive mathematical reasoning.

Mathematics And Plausible Reasoning Patterns Of Plausible Inference

Author: George Pólya
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691025100
Size: 25.34 MB
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A guide to the practical art of plausible reasoning, this book has relevance in every field of intellectual activity. Professor Polya, a world-famous mathematician from Stanford University, uses mathematics to show how hunches and guesses play an important part in even the most rigorously deductive science. He explains how solutions to problems can be guessed at; good guessing is often more important than rigorous deduction in finding correct solutions. Vol. II, on Patterns of Plausible Inference, attempts to develop a logic of plausibility. What makes some evidence stronger and some weaker? How does one seek evidence that will make a suspected truth more probable? These questions involve philosophy and psychology as well as mathematics.

Over And Over Again

Author: Gengzhe Chang
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780883856413
Size: 16.95 MB
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Mathematical theme that relates chaos, graphics and geometry, all with just high school maths background.

Mathematical Methods In Science

Author: George Pólya
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780883856260
Size: 60.61 MB
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This book captures some of Pólya's excitement and vision. Its distinctive feature is the stress on the history of certain elementary chapters of science; these can be a source of enjoyment and deeper understanding of mathematics even for beginners who have little, or perhaps no, knowledge of physics.

Infinity And The Mind

Author: Rudy Rucker
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400849047
Size: 56.45 MB
Format: PDF
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In Infinity and the Mind, Rudy Rucker leads an excursion to that stretch of the universe he calls the "Mindscape," where he explores infinity in all its forms: potential and actual, mathematical and physical, theological and mundane. Rucker acquaints us with Gödel's rotating universe, in which it is theoretically possible to travel into the past, and explains an interpretation of quantum mechanics in which billions of parallel worlds are produced every microsecond. It is in the realm of infinity, he maintains, that mathematics, science, and logic merge with the fantastic. By closely examining the paradoxes that arise from this merging, we can learn a great deal about the human mind, its powers, and its limitations. Using cartoons, puzzles, and quotations to enliven his text, Rucker guides us through such topics as the paradoxes of set theory, the possibilities of physical infinities, and the results of Gödel's incompleteness theorems. His personal encounters with Gödel the mathematician and philosopher provide a rare glimpse at genius and reveal what very few mathematicians have dared to admit: the transcendent implications of Platonic realism.