The Evolution Of Technology

Author: George Basalla
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316101584
Size: 58.67 MB
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This book presents an evolutionary theory of technological change based upon recent scholarship in the history of technology and upon relevant material drawn from economic history and anthropology. It challenges the popular notion that technology advances by the efforts of a few heroic individuals who produce a series of revolutionary inventions owing little or nothing to the technological past. Therefore, the book's argument is shaped by analogies taken selectively from the theory of organic evolution, and not from the theory and practice of political revolution. Three themes appear, and reappear with variations, throughout the study. The first is diversity: an acknowledgment of the vast numbers of different kinds of made things (artifacts) that have long been available to humanity; the second is necessity: the belief that humans are driven to invent new artifacts in order to meet basic biological requirements such as food, shelter, and defense; and the third is technological evolution: an organic analogy that explains both the emergence of novel artifacts and their subsequent selection by society for incorporation into its material life without invoking either biological necessity or technological progress. Although the book is not intended to provide a strict chronological account of the development of technology, historical examples - including many of the major achievements of Western technology: the waterwheel, the printing press, the steam engine, automobiles and trucks, and the transistor - are used extensively to support its theoretical framework. The Evolution of Techology will be of interest to all readers seeking to learn how and why technology changes, including both students and specialists in the history of technology and science.

History And Philosophy Of Science And Technology Volume Ii

Author: Pablo Lorenzano
Publisher: EOLSS Publications
ISBN: 1848263244
Size: 72.11 MB
Format: PDF
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History and Philosophy of Science and Technology is a component of Encyclopedia of Physical Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on History and Philosophy of Science and Technology in four volumes covers several topics such as: Introduction to the Philosophy of Science; The Nature and Structure of Scientific Theories Natural Science; A Short History of Molecular Biology; The Structure of the Darwinian Argument In The Origin of Species; History of Measurement Theory; Episodes of XX Century Cosmology: A Historical Approach; Philosophy of Economics; Social Sciences: Historical And Philosophical Overview of Methods And Goals; Introduction to Ethics of Science and Technology; The Ethics of Science and Technology; The Control of Nature and the Origins of The Dichotomy Between Fact And Value; Science and Empires: The Geo-Epistemic Location of Knowledge; Science and Religion; Scientific Knowledge and Religious Knowledge - Significant Epistemological Reference Points; Thing Called Philosophy of Technology; Transitions from Function-Oriented To Effect-Oriented Technologies. Some Thought on the Nature of Modern Technology; Technical Agency and Sources of Technological Pessimism These four volumes are aimed at a broad spectrum of audiences: University and College Students, Educators and Research Personnel

History And Philosophy Of Science And Technology Volume Iii

Author: Pablo Lorenzano
Publisher: EOLSS Publications
ISBN: 1848263252
Size: 17.93 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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History and Philosophy of Science and Technology is a component of Encyclopedia of Physical Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on History and Philosophy of Science and Technology in four volumes covers several topics such as: Introduction to the Philosophy of Science; The Nature and Structure of Scientific Theories Natural Science; A Short History of Molecular Biology; The Structure of the Darwinian Argument In The Origin of Species; History of Measurement Theory; Episodes of XX Century Cosmology: A Historical Approach; Philosophy of Economics; Social Sciences: Historical And Philosophical Overview of Methods And Goals; Introduction to Ethics of Science and Technology; The Ethics of Science and Technology; The Control of Nature and the Origins of The Dichotomy Between Fact And Value; Science and Empires: The Geo-Epistemic Location of Knowledge; Science and Religion; Scientific Knowledge and Religious Knowledge - Significant Epistemological Reference Points; Thing Called Philosophy of Technology; Transitions from Function-Oriented To Effect-Oriented Technologies. Some Thought on the Nature of Modern Technology; Technical Agency and Sources of Technological Pessimism These four volumes are aimed at a broad spectrum of audiences: University and College Students, Educators and Research Personnel.

Science And Technology In World History Volume 4

Author: David Deming
Publisher: McFarland
ISBN: 1476625042
Size: 38.94 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The history of science is a story of human discovery--intertwined with religion, philosophy, economics and technology. The fourth in a series, this book covers the beginnings of the modern world, when 16th-century Europeans began to realize that their scientific achievements surpassed those of the Greeks and Romans. Western Civilization organized itself around the idea that human technological and moral progress was achievable and desirable. Science emerged in 17th-century Europe as scholars subordinated reason to empiricism. Inspired by the example of physics, men like Robert Boyle began the process of changing alchemy into the exact science of chemistry. During the 18th century, European society became more secular and tolerant. Philosophers and economists developed many of the ideas underpinning modern social theories and economic policies. As the Industrial Revolution fundamentally transformed the world by increasing productivity, people became more affluent, better educated and urbanized, and the world entered an era of unprecedented prosperity and progress.

The Social Construction Of Technological Systems

Author: Wiebe E. Bijker
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262300877
Size: 58.36 MB
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This pioneering book, first published in 1987, launched the new field of social studies of technology. It introduced a method of inquiry--social construction of technology, or SCOT--that became a key part of the wider discipline of science and technology studies. The book helped the MIT Press shape its STS list and inspired the Inside Technology series. The thirteen essays in the book tell stories about such varied technologies as thirteenth-century galleys, eighteenth-century cooking stoves, and twentieth-century missile systems. Taken together, they affirm the fruitfulness of an approach to the study of technology that gives equal weight to technical, social, economic, and political questions, and they demonstrate the illuminating effects of the integration of empirics and theory. The approaches in this volume--collectively called SCOT (after the volume's title) have since broadened their scope, and twenty-five years after the publication of this book, it is difficult to think of a technology that has not been studied from a SCOT perspective and impossible to think of a technology that cannot be studied that way.