Gene Patents And Collaborative Licensing Models

Author: Geertrui van Overwalle
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521896738
Size: 49.78 MB
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The cost of patent licenses needed to design a new genetic test or treatment may ultimately prevent research projects getting started, as individual components are protected by different patent owners. This book examines legal measures which might be used to solve the problem of fragmentation of patents in genetics.

Common Pools Of Genetic Resources

Author: Evanson Chege Kamau
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135069700
Size: 57.78 MB
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The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) strives for the sustainable and equitable utilization of genetic resources, with the ultimate goal of conserving biodiversity. The CBD and the Nagoya Protocol which has since been elaborated suggest a bilateral model for access to genetic resources and the sharing of benefits from their utilization. There is concern that the bilateral exchange "genetic resource for benefit sharing" could have disappointing results because providers are left out of the process of research and development, benefits are difficult to be traced to sources, and providers owning the same resource may complain of being excluded from benefit sharing. Thus, the CBD objective of full utilization and equitability may become flawed. Common Pools of Genetic Resources: Equity and Innovation in International Biodiversity Law suggests common pools as a complementary approach to bilateralism. This is one of the first books to reply to a number of complex legal questions related to the interpretation and implementation of the Nagoya Protocol. Taking an inductive approach, it describes existing pools and analyzes how they are organized and how they perform in terms of joint R&D and benefit sharing. It presents case studies of the most characteristic types of common pools, provides suggestions for further developing existing pools to cope with the requirements of the CBD and NP and, at the same time uses the clauses these conventions contain to open up for commons approaches. Written by a team of expert academics and practitioners in the field, this innovative book makes a timely and valuable contribution to academic and policy debates in international environmental law, international biodiversity law, intellectual property law, climate law and the law of indigenous populations.

Research Handbook On Intellectual Property And The Life Sciences

Author: Duncan Matthews
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1783479450
Size: 49.27 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Intellectual property (IP) is a key component of the life sciences, one of the most dynamic and innovative fields of technology today. At the same time, the relationship between IP and the life sciences raises new public policy dilemmas. The Research Handbook on Intellectual Property and the Life Sciences comprises contributions by leading experts from academia and industry to provide in-depth analyses of key topics including pharmaceuticals, diagnostics and genes, plant innovations, stem cells, the role of competition law and access to medicines. The Research Handbook focuses on the relationship between IP and the life sciences in Europe and the United States, complemented by country-specific case studies on Australia, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Kenya, South Africa and Thailand to provide a truly international perspective.

Quality Issues In Clinical Genetic Services

Author: Ulf Kristoffersson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048139194
Size: 60.59 MB
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Initially genetic disorders were all considered as rare diseases. At present, in the mid of 2009, the OMIM catalogue contains information on more than 12 000 entries of which about 2500 are available for clinical testing based on the identification of the responsible gene defect. However, altogether it has been estimated that about 8 percent of a population in the economically developed countries will during their lifetime suffer from a disease mainly as the result of their genetic constitution. Adding to that, it is estimated that all diseases have a genetic component, which will determine who will be at a higher than average risk for a certain disorder. Further it is postulated that in the near future, this genetic profiling could become useful in selecting an appropriate therapy adapted to the genetic constitution of the person. Thus, genetic disorders are not rare. Measuring quality of health care related processes became an issue in the 1990s, mainly in laboratory medicine, but also for hospitals and other health care systems. In many countries national authorities started to implement recommendations, guidelines or legal procedures regulating quality of health care delivery. In laboratory medicine, in parallel, the use of accreditation as a method assuring high quality standards in testing came in use. With the increasing possibilities of performing molecular genetic testing, genetic laboratories needed to become involved in this process. As many genetic disorders are rare, most laboratories worldwide offered analysis for a specific set of disorders, and, therefore, very early on a transborder flow of samples occurred. While international quality criteria (ISO) have been in existence for a number of years, the regulation of quality issues still may differ between countries. Based on their personal experience in the varying fields of quality research and clinical implementation of quality criteria in genetic services the authors of this book share their experience and give examples of the implementation of quality issues in national quality systems worldwide. This book, which is the result of the effort of many persons, is destined to aid laboratory managers and counsellors, health care managers and other stakeholders in national or international health care service to improve the services to the benefit of patients with suspected genetic disorders.

Governing Knowledge Commons

Author: Brett M. Frischmann
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199972044
Size: 32.12 MB
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"Knowledge commons" describes the institutionalized community governance of the sharing and, in some cases, creation, of information, science, knowledge, data, and other types of intellectual and cultural resources. It is the subject of enormous recent interest and enthusiasm with respect to policymaking about innovation, creative production, and intellectual property. Taking that enthusiasm as its starting point, Governing Knowledge Commons argues that policymaking should be based on evidence and a deeper understanding of what makes commons institutions work. It offers a systematic way to study knowledge commons, borrowing and building on Elinor Ostrom's Nobel Prize-winning research on natural resource commons. It proposes a framework for studying knowledge commons that is adapted to the unique attributes of knowledge and information, describing the framework in detail and explaining how to put it into context both with respect to commons research and with respect to innovation and information policy. Eleven detailed case studies apply and discuss the framework exploring knowledge commons across a wide variety of scientific and cultural domains.

The Cambridge Handbook Of Technical Standardization Law

Author: Jorge L. Contreras
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108547303
Size: 60.84 MB
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Technical standards are ubiquitous in the modern networked economy. They allow products made and sold by different vendors to interoperate with little to no consumer effort and enable new market entrants to innovate on top of established technology platforms. This groundbreaking volume, edited by Jorge L. Contreras, assesses and analyzes the legal aspects of technical standards and standardization. Bringing together more than thirty leading international scholars, advocates, and policymakers, it focuses on two of the most contentious and critical areas pertaining to standards today in key jurisdictions around the world: antitrust/competition law and patent law. (A subsequent volume will focus on international trade, copyright, and administrative law.) This comprehensive, detailed examination sheds new light on the standards that shape the global technology marketplace and will serve as an indispensable tool for scholars, practitioners, judges, and policymakers everywhere.

Open Development

Author: Matthew L. Smith
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262525410
Size: 37.92 MB
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Experts explore current theory and practice in the application of digitally enabled open networked social models to international development.

Viral Spiral

Author: David Bollier
Publisher: David Bollier
ISBN:
Size: 18.70 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A narrative history of the emergence of electronic "free culture" explains how strict intellectual property rights, hierarchies of credentialed experts, and other forms of centralized control are being challenged and reshaped by the world of digital media, in an account that includes coverage of such figures as hacker Richard Stallman and copyright scholar Lawrence Lessig. 20,000 first printing.