Frozen Fauna Of The Mammoth Steppe

Author: R. Dale Guthrie
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022615971X
Size: 24.92 MB
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Frozen mammals of the Ice Age, preserved for millennia in the tundra, have been a source of fascination and mystery since their first discovery over two centuries ago. These mummies, their ecology, and their preservation are the subject of this compelling book by paleontologist Dale Guthrie. The 1979 find of a frozen, extinct steppe bison in an Alaskan gold mine allowed him to undertake the first scientific excavation of an Ice Age mummy in North America and to test theories about these enigmatic frozen fauna. The 36,000-year-old bison mummy, coated with blue mineral crystals, was dubbed "Blue Babe." Guthrie conveys the excitement of its excavation and shows how he made use of evidence from living animals, other Pleistocene mummies, Paleolithic art, and geological data. With photographs and scores of detailed drawings, he takes the reader through the excavation and subsequent detective work, analyzing the animal's carcass and its surroundings, the circumstances of its death, its appearance in life, the landscape it inhabited, and the processes of preservation by freezing. His examination shows that Blue Babe died in early winter, falling prey to lions that inhabited the Arctic during the Pleistocene era. Guthrie uses information gleaned from his study of Blue Babe to provide a broad picture of bison evolutionary history and ecology, including speculations on the interactions of bison and Ice Age peoples. His description of the Mammoth Steppe as a cold, dry, grassy plain is based on an entirely new way of reading the fossil record.

The Nature Of Paleolithic Art

Author: R. Dale Guthrie
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226311265
Size: 21.10 MB
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A richly illustrated study provides the most comprehensive representation of Paleolithic art ever published and offers a radical new way of interpreting the art and artifacts of these prehistoric cultures.

The Eternal Frontier

Author: Tim Flannery
Publisher: Grove/Atlantic, Inc.
ISBN: 0802191096
Size: 26.82 MB
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Sixty-five million years ago, a meteor six miles wide smashed into the Gulf of Mexico, ending the age of dinosaurs and devastating the North American continent. Starting with this catastrophic event, The Eternal Frontier recounts the extraordinary ecological history of North America, showing how the continent originally came into being and eventually transformed into the landscape we know today. This sweeping, multidisciplinary book is history on an epic scale. Tim Flannery, a world-renowned paleontologist, traces the postmeteor rebirth of plants, animals, climate, and landforms. He describes a time when rain forests flourished in Greenland and when giant long-necked camels and fat aquatic rhinos thrived in North America’s golden age. He explores the massive changes wrought by the ice ages and shows how geological and climatic forces shaped both the autumn foliage in New England and the cacti in the Sonoran Desert. As the story moves across vast distances of time and geography, we eventually witness the impact of the human race. Flannery imagines the first humans to have immigrated 14,000 years ago, after the recession of the last ice age, and he explains how the pioneering Clovis hunters exterminated an ice-age fauna, including enormous mammoths and mastodons and half-ton lions. The story continues right up to the present, covering the deforestation of the Northeast, the decimation of the buffalo, and other facets of the impact of frontier settlement and the development of modern industry and commerce. The Eternal Frontier is science writing at its best, combining an enormous wealth of fascinating information with engaging prose that will be accessible to readers of any background.

Blue Babe

Author: Mary Lee Guthrie
Publisher: Alaska UA Museum
ISBN:
Size: 46.56 MB
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Based on a scientific manuscript, this popular account, describes the discovery, excavation, scientific investigation and mounting for display of North Americas first frozen mummified remains of an ice age steppe bison (Blue Babe) found in 1979 near Fairbanks Alaska. Description of other Pleistocene animals and fossils is also provided.

Advances In Parasitology

Author: D. Rollinson
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123984572
Size: 71.66 MB
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First published in 1963, Advances in Parasitology contains comprehensive and up-to-date reviews in all areas of interest in contemporary parasitology. Advances in Parasitology includes medical studies on parasites of major influence, such as Plasmodium falciparum and trypanosomes. The series also contains reviews of more traditional areas, such as zoology, taxonomy, and life history, which shape current thinking and applications. Eclectic volumes are supplemented by thematic volumes on various topics, including control of human parasitic diseases and global mapping of infectious diseases. The 2010 impact factor is1.683 Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field Contributions from leading authorities and industry experts

Bison And People On The North American Great Plains

Author: Geoff Cunfer
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 1623494753
Size: 71.10 MB
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The near disappearance of the American bison in the nineteenth century is commonly understood to be the result of over-hunting, capitalist greed, and all but genocidal military policy. This interpretation remains seductive because of its simplicity; there are villains and victims in this familiar cautionary tale of the American frontier. But as this volume of groundbreaking scholarship shows, the story of the bison’s demise is actually quite nuanced. Bison and People on the North American Great Plains brings together voices from several disciplines to offer new insights on the relationship between humans and animals that approached extinction. The essays here transcend the border between the United States and Canada to provide a continental context. Contributors include historians, archaeologists, anthropologists, paleontologists, and Native American perspectives. This book explores the deep past and examines the latest knowledge on bison anatomy and physiology, how bison responded to climate change (especially drought), and early bison hunters and pre-contact trade. It also focuses on the era of European contact, in particular the arrival of the horse, and some of the first known instances of over-hunting. By the nineteenth century bison reached a “tipping point” as a result of new tanning practices, an early attempt at protective legislation, and ventures to introducing cattle as a replacement stock. The book concludes with a Lakota perspective featuring new ethnohistorical research. Bison and People on the North American Great Plains is a major contribution to environmental history, western history, and the growing field of transnational history.

Human Ecology Of Beringia

Author: John F. Hoffecker
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231503881
Size: 31.97 MB
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Twenty-five thousand years ago, sea level fell more than 400 feet below its present position as a consequence of the growth of immense ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. A dry plain stretching 1,000 miles from the Arctic Ocean to the Aleutians became exposed between northeast Asia and Alaska, and across that plain, most likely, walked the first people of the New World. This book describes what is known about these people and the now partly submerged land, named Beringia, which they settled during the final millennia of the Ice Age. Humans first occupied Beringia during a twilight period when rising sea levels had not yet caught up with warming climates. Although the land bridge between northeast Asia and Alaska was still present, warmer and wetter climates were rapidly transforming the Beringian steppe into shrub tundra. This volume synthesizes current research-some previously unpublished-on the archaeological sites and rapidly changing climates and biota of the period, suggesting that the absence of woody shrubs to help fire bone fuel may have been the barrier to earlier settlement, and that from the outset the Beringians developed a postglacial economy similar to that of later northern interior peoples. The book opens with a review of current research and the major problems and debates regarding the environment and archaeology of Beringia. It then describes Beringian environments and the controversies surrounding their interpretation; traces the evolving adaptations of early humans to the cold environments of northern Eurasia, which set the stage for the settlement of Beringia; and provides a detailed account of the archaeological record in three chapters, each of which is focused on a specific slice of time between 15,000 and 11,500 years ago. In conclusion, the authors present an interpretive summary of the human ecology of Beringia and discuss its relationship to the wider problem of the peopling of the New World.

Recent Vertebrate Carcasses And Their Paleobiological Implications

Author: Johannes Weigelt
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226881687
Size: 40.12 MB
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The first English translation of Johannes Weigelt's 1927 classic makes available the seminal work in taphonomy, the study of how organisms die, decay, become entombed in sediments, and fossilize over time. Weigelt emphasized the importance of empirical work and made extensive observations of modern carcasses on the Texas Gulf Coast. He applied the results to evidence from the fossil record and demonstrated that an understanding of the postmortem fate of modern animals is crucial to making sound inferences about fossil vertebrate assemblages and their ecological communities. Weigelt spent sixteen months on the Gulf Coast in the mid-1920s, gathering evidence from the carcasses of cattle and other animals in the early stages of preservation. This book reports his observations. He discusses death and decomposition; classifies various modes of death (drowning, cold, dehydration, fire, mud, quicksand, oil slicks, etc.); documents and analyzes the positions of carcasses; presents detailed data on carcass assemblages at the Smither's Lake site in Texas; and, in a final chapter, makes comparisons to carcass assemblages from the geologic past. He raises questions about whether much of the fossil record is a product of unusual events and, if so, what the implications are for paleoecological studies. The English edition of Recent Vertebrate Carcasses includes a foreword and a translator's note that comment on Weigelt's life and the significance of his work. The original bibliography has been brought up to date, and, where necessary, updated scientific and place names have been added to the text in brackets. An index of names, places, and subjects is included, and Weigelt's own photographs of carcasses and drawings of skeletons illustrate the text.

Bonebeds

Author: Raymond R. Rogers
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226723739
Size: 49.90 MB
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The vertebrate fossil record extends back more than 500 million years, and bonebeds—localized concentrations of the skeletal remains of vertebrate animals—help unlock the secrets of this long history. Often spectacularly preserved, bonebeds—both modern and ancient—can reveal more about life histories, ecological associations, and preservation patterns than any single skeleton or bone. For this reason, bonebeds are frequently studied by paleobiologists, geologists, and archeologists seeking to piece together the vertebrate record. Thirteen respected researchers combine their experiences in Bonebeds, providing readers with workable definitions, theoretical frameworks, and a compendium of modern techniques in bonebed data collection and analysis. By addressing the historical, theoretical, and practical aspects of bonebed research, this edited volume—the first of its kind—provides the background and methods that students and professionals need to explore and understand these fantastic records of ancient life and death.

Here On Earth

Author: Tim Flannery
Publisher: Grove/Atlantic, Inc.
ISBN: 0802195601
Size: 57.59 MB
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Beginning at the moment of creation with the Big Bang, Here on Earth explores the evolution of Earth from a galactic cloud of dust and gas to a planet with a metallic core and early signs of life within a billion years of being created. In a compelling narrative, Flannery describes the formation of the Earth’s crust and atmosphere, as well as the transformation of the planet’s oceans from toxic brews of metals (such as iron, copper, and lead) to life-sustaining bodies covering 70 percent of the planet’s surface. Life, Flannery shows, first appeared in these oceans in the form of microscopic plants and bacteria, and these metals served as catalysts for the earliest biological processes known to exist. From this starting point, Flannery tells the fascinating story of the evolution of our own species, exploring several early human species—from the diminutive creatures (the famed hobbits) who lived in Africa around two million years ago to Homo erectus—before turning his attention to Homo sapiens. Drawing on Charles Darwin’s and Alfred Russell Wallace’s theories of evolution and Lovelock’s Gaia hypothesis, Here on Earth is a dazzling account of life on our planet.