From Aristotle To Darwin And Back Again

Author: Etienne Gilson
Publisher: Ignatius Press
ISBN: 1681491958
Size: 50.62 MB
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Foreword by Christoph Cardinal Schönborn Darwin's theory of evolution remains controversial, even though most scientists, philosophers, and even theologians accept it, in some form, as an explanation for the variety of organisms. The controversy erupts when the theory is used to try to explain everything, including every aspect of human life, and to deny the role of a Creator or a purpose to life. The overreaching of many scientists into matters beyond the self-imposed limits of scientific method is perhaps explained in part by the loss of two important ideas in modern thinking—final causality or purpose, and formal causality. Scientists understandably bracket the idea out of their scientific thinking because they seek explanations on the level of material and efficient causes only. Yet many of them wrongly conclude from their selective study of the world that final and formal causes do not exist at all and that they have no place in the rational study of life. Likewise, many erroneously assume that philosophy cannot draw upon scientific findings, in light of final and formal causality, to better understand the world and man. The great philosopher and historian of philosophy, +tienne Gilson, sets out to show that final causality or purposiveness and formal causality are principles for those who think hard and carefully about the world, including the world of biology. Gilson insists that a completely rational understanding of organisms and biological systems requires the philosophical notion of teleology, the idea that certain kinds of things exist and have ends or purposes the fulfillment of which are linked to their natures—in other words, formal and final causes. His approach relies on philosophical reflection on the facts of science, not upon theology or an appeal to religious authorities such as the Church or the Bible. "The object of the present essay is not to make of final causality a scientific notion, which it is not, but to show that it is a philosophical inevitability and, consequently, a constant of biophilosophy, or philosophy of life. It is not, then, a question of theology. If there is teleology in nature, the theologian has the right to rely on this fact in order to draw from it the consequences which, in his eyes, proceed from it concerning the existence of God. But the existence of teleology in the universe is the object of a properly philosophical reflection, which has no other goal than to confirm or invalidate the reality of it. The present work will be concerned with nothing else: reason interpreting sensible experience—does it or does it not conclude to the existence of teleology in nature?" Etienne Gilson

Reflecting On Darwin

Author: Eckart Voigts
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317069676
Size: 59.79 MB
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Taking up the historical evolution of Darwin and his theories and the cultural responses they have inspired, Reflecting on Darwin poses the following questions: 'How are the apparatuses in the mid-nineteenth century and at the turn of the twenty-first century interconnected with bio-scientific paradigms in art, literature, culture and science?' 'How are naturalism, determinism and Darwinism - the eugenics of the nineteenth century and the genetic coding of the twentieth century - positioned, embodied and staged in various media configurations and media genres?' and 'How have particular media apparatuses formed, displaced or stabilized the various concepts of humankind in the framework of evolutionary theory?' Ranging from the early circulation of Darwin’s ideas to the present, this interdisciplinary collection pays particular attention to Darwin’s postmillennial reception. Beginning with an overview of the historical development of contemporary ecological and ethical fears, Reflecting on Darwin then turns to Darwin’s influence on contemporary media, neo-Victorian literature and culture, science fiction literature and film, and contemporary theory. In examining the plurality of ways in which Darwin has been rewritten and reappropriated, this unique volume both mirrors and inspects the complexity of recent debates in Victorian and neo-Victorian studies.

Fundamentalisms And Society

Author: Martin E. Marty
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226508818
Size: 73.80 MB
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The Fundamentalism Project Edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby Around the world, fundamentalist movements are profoundly affecting the way we live. Misinformation and misperception about fundamentalism exacerbate conflicts at home and abroad. Yet policymakers, journalists, students, and others have lacked any comprehensive resource on the explosive phenomenon of fundamentalism. Now the Fundamentalism Project has assembled an international team of scholars for a multivolume assessment of the history, scope, sources, character, and impact of fundamentalist movements within the world's major religious traditions. Fundamentalisms and Society shows how fundamentalist movements have influenced human relations, education, women's rights, and scientific research in over a dozen nations and within the traditions of Islam, Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism, and Hinduism. Drawn from the fields of anthropology, sociology, history of religion, and history of science, the contributors cover topics such as the educational structures of Hindu revivalism, women in fundamentalist Iran and Pakistan, and the creationist cosmos of Protestant fundamentalism. In a concluding essay, William H. McNeill situates contemporary fundamentalisms within a world historical context. The Fundamentalism Project, Volume 2 Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby direct the Fundamentalism Project. Marty, the Fairfax M. Cone Distinguished Service Professor of the History of Modern Christianity at the University of Chicago, is the senior editor of the Christian Century and the author of numerous books, including the multivolume Modern American Religion, also published by the University of Chicago Press. Appleby, a research associate at the University of Chicago, is the author of “Church and Age Unite!” The Modernist Impulse in American Catholicism.

That All May Flourish

Author: Laura Hartman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190456043
Size: 80.61 MB
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Can humans flourish without destroying the earth? In this book, experts on many of the world's major and minor religious traditions address the question of human and earth flourishing. Each chapter considers specific religious ideas and specific environmental harms. Chapters are paired and the authors work in dialogue with one another. Taken together, the chapters reveal that the question of flourishing is deceptively simple. Most would agree that humans should flourish without destroying the earth. But not all humans have equal opportunities to flourish. Additionally, on a basic physical level any human flourishing must, of necessity, cause some harm. These considerations of the price and distribution of flourishing raise unique questions about the status of humans and nature. This book represents a step toward reconciliation: that people and their ecosystems may live in peace, that people from different religious worldviews may engage in productive dialogue; in short, that all may flourish.

Thomas Aquinas

Author: J. J. McEvoy
Publisher: Four Courts PressLtd
Size: 51.84 MB
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Seven lectures graced the second in the annual series at the Irish college devoted to the 13th-century saint and theologian. The topics include friendship and love, the desire for happiness as a way to God, the separated soul's natural knowledge, and truth as a good. Appended is a guide to consultat

Three Quests In Philosophy

Author: Etienne Gilson
Publisher: Pontifical Inst of Medieval studies
Size: 40.40 MB
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Etienne Gilson was one of the most influential intellectuals and philosophers of the twentieth century. Some have credited him with expanding the spectrum of philosophical thought that had previously been limited by nineteenth-century analysts and positivists. Gilson devoted six decades to the study of the major philosophical figures of the Middle Ages. His interpretations of them are justly seen as new and insightful, and have exercised enormous influence on research in philosophy and on its presentation in the classroom. A 'Gilson Society' has been active for years, and the Institut catholique in Paris has created a Gilson Chair in Metaphysics. A French publisher has announced a multi-volume publication of his complete works. These seven previously unpublished lectures - Gilson termed them 'Quests' - represent his mature thought on three key philosophical questions: the nature of philosophy, 'species,' and 'matter.' These are issues of perennial and pertinent interest to both philosophers and scientists. Gilson presents them here with his characteristic clarity, sense, and humour.

Philosophy Books

Author: Thomas May
Publisher: Bowling Green State Univ philosophy
Size: 32.20 MB
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