Friction

Author: Sophia Moskalenko
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190624922
Size: 51.37 MB
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Terrorism is an extreme form of radicalization. In this ground-breaking and important book, Clark McCauley and Sophia Moskalenko identify and outline twelve mechanisms of political radicalization that can move individuals, groups, and the masses to increased sympathy and support for political violence. Co-authored by two psychologists both acknowledged in their field as experts in radicalization and consultants to the Department of Homeland Security and other government agencies, Friction draws on wide-ranging case histories to show striking parallels between 1800s anti-czarist terrorism, 1970s anti-war terrorism, and 21st century jihadist terrorism. Altogether, the twelve mechanisms of political radicalization demonstrate how unexceptional people are moved to exceptional violence in the conflict between states and non-state challengers. In this revised and expanded edition, McCauley and Moskalenko use the twelve mechanisms to analyze recent cases of lone-wolf terrorists and illustrate how individuals can become radicalized to jihadist violence with group influence or organizational support. Additionally, in the context of the Islamic State's worldwide efforts to radicalize moderate Muslims for jihad, they advance a model that differentiates radicalization in opinion from radicalization in action, and suggest different strategies for countering these diverse forms of radicalization. As a result, the authors conclude that the same mechanisms are at work in radicalizing both terrorists and states targeted by terrorists, implying that these conclusions are as relevant for policy-makers and security officers as they are for citizens facing the threat of terror today.

State Society And National Security

Author: Shashi Jayakumar
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813140135
Size: 20.60 MB
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Addressing the complexities of radicalisation, resilience, cyber, and homeland security, State, Society and National Security: Challenges and Opportunities in the 21st Century aims to shed light on what has changed in recent years security discourse, what has worked (as well as what has not), and what the potential further evolutions within each domain might be. The release of this book commemorates the 10th anniversary of the creation of the Centre of Excellence for National Security (CENS) — a policy-oriented security think tank within the S Rajaratnam School for International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, as well as the 10th edition of CENS' annual Asia-Pacific Programme for Senior National Security Officers (APPSNO), which has developed into a premier international security conference in Southeast Asia. Featuring contributions from practitioners, policy experts and academics closely linked to CENS, this volume is a reminder of the meaningful and impact-creating insights that 10 years' worth of thinking and talking about national security imperatives have generated. Contributors to this volume include Professor Sir David Omand, former director of the United Kingdom's Government Communication Headquarters (GCHQ), Steven R Corman, Professor in the Hugh Downs School of Human Communication, Marc Sageman, former operations officer at the United States Central Intelligence Agency, Ilan Mizrahi, former Head of Israel's National Security Council and John, Lord Alderdice, Liberal Democrat member of the House of Lords and Senior Research Fellow and Director of the Centre for the Resolution of Intractable Conflict at Harris Manchester College, Oxford. This book has been written in a manner that makes it accessible to policymakers, security practitioners and academics, as well as interested lay readers. Contents:National Security:Securing the State: A Conversation with Peter Ho and Benny Lim Thinking about National Security (Sir David Omand)Strategic Intelligence Challenges in the 21st Century (Ilan Mizrahi)The Velocity of Change: Global Threats, Moore's Law and Securing the Future (David F Heyman)Resilience:The Role of Community Resilience in Advancing Security (Stephen E Flynn)Social Resilience and the Troubles in Northern Ireland (Lord John Alderdice)Resilience and National Security: "Everyone Has a Plan 'Til They Get Punched in the Mouth" (Norman Vasu)Radicalisation and Extremism:On Radicalization (Marc Sageman)'Radicalisation': The Transformation of Modern Understanding of Terrorist Origins, Psychology and Motivation (Andrew Silke and Katherine Brown)Radicalisation into Violent Extremism: A New Synthesis? (Kumar Ramakrishna)Strategic and Crisis Communications:The 21st Century Strategic Communication Landscape and its Challenges for Policymakers (Steven R Corman)Digital Naturals and the Effects of Social Media on Disaster Communication (W Timothy Coombs)The Evolution, Impact and Future of Social Media for National Security (Damien D Cheong)Cyber:Embracing Transformation: Success and Failure in Cybersecurity Implementation (Christian Lifländer)Singapore's Approach to Cybersecurity (Wong Yu Han)Regional Cybersecurity Policy Developments in Southeast Asia and the Wider Asia Pacific (Caitríona Heinl) Readership: Policymakers, security practitioners, security studies academics, general readers interested in issues of security.

Criminology Theory And Terrorism

Author: Joshua D. Freilich
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317512022
Size: 77.22 MB
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Although there has been an increase in research on terrorism across the social and behavioural sciences in the past few decades, until recently most of this work has originated from political science, psychology or economics. Therefore, our focus in this book on criminological conceptual frameworks and empirical studies that engage terrorism and responses to it is unique. We include a distinguished group of researchers that offer their distinctive insights into criminological perspectives on terrorism. The contributors focus on criminological perspectives that have rarely, if ever, been previously applied to the study of terrorism. This includes a range of perspectives from rational choice to social disorganization; from strain to routine activities theory. This volume will advance understanding of terrorism by taking advantage of criminological contributions, and at the same time will serve as a useful update to the criminologists and their students already working in this area. It would also be a helpful introduction to those criminologists and their students who would like to be more engaged in this important area of research. This book was originally published as a special issue of Terrorism and Political Violence.

Lone Wolf And Autonomous Cell Terrorism

Author: Jeffrey Kaplan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317530438
Size: 70.33 MB
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President Obama has declared that the greatest terrorist threat which America faces is attacks by lone wolf terrorists. This volume expands the lone wolf rubric to include autonomous cells: small groups of terrorists who cooperate, but operate independently. The challenge presented by lone wolves and autonomous cells, unlike the threat emanating from established terrorist groups like Al Qaeda, has proven intractable because of the difficulty of gathering intelligence on these actors or effectively countering their actions. Lone wolves operate under the radar, staging deadly attacks such as that at the Boston Marathon, and the 2011 attacks in Norway. This volume includes Theory and Policy Studies, individual case studies and the technological impacts of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons as well as the impact of social media in the process of recruitment and radicalization. This book was originally published as a special issue of Terrorism & Political Violence.

National Security Management In Federal Structures

Author: Centre for Public Policy Research
Publisher: Centre for Public Policy Research
ISBN: 8193000404
Size: 45.36 MB
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Beliefs about security are based on threat perceptions in the environment. Assessing security is a cognitive process based on the repertoire of beliefs that make up a person’s subjective view of reality. The issue of security can, therefore be considered in political, societal, and economic terms. Changing security beliefs are based on global trajectories and the realignment of transnational environments. For the last two decades, the international community has been concerned by the emergence of non-state actors waging war against the state in ways hitherto unknown in conventional warfare. Widespread transnational terrorism and other anti-national movements have spurred the need to reconcile national security concepts and perspectives, in order to enable domestic development, growth and harmony. India has been a victim of various kinds of security threats, both internal and external. The United States of America has also faced major security threats, which reached new proportions with the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In strategic terms, international cooperation is vital to fight terrorism. India and the USA, being among the world’s largest democracies with strong federal structures, have great potential to work together and collaborate effectively to combat such threats. With these considerations in mind, the CPPR-Centre for Strategic Studies decided to conduct its first international conference on ‘’National Security Management in Federal Structures: Perspectives from India and the United States.’’ The focus was on the federal framework of the two countries and the best way forward to tackle security issues in the emerging political and economic scenarios at the federal level. The themes and deliberations of this conference highlighted the significance of national security in federal structures. The participants examined current Indo-US policies and threw light on new security dimensions, both from an academic as well as a practitioner’s perspective. This book is a compilation of the resource proceedings of the Conference which has been contributed by eminent strategists, academicians, policy makers etc.

Investigating Terrorism

Author: John Pearse
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118316274
Size: 22.13 MB
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Investigating Terrorism takes a look behind the closed doors of terrorist cases. Major players from the world of counter-terrorism, including politicians, lawyers, psychologists and police, offer analyses of recent terror attacks and share their knowledge of terrorist behaviour Deals with legal, psychological and practical issues surrounding how to deal with a real life ‘ticking bomb’ scenario Provides an insight into the most recent police model for interviewing witnesses, victims and suspects Contains the latest analyses of recent terrorist attacks including the recent Norwegian tragedy carried out by terrorist Anders Breivik Contains the views of major players in the world of counter-terrorism, including Lord Carlile, the former HMG’s Independent Reviewer of Terrorist legislation, and Peter Clarke, the recently retired Head of Terrorist Investigations for the UK Incorporates recently-released findings from studies commissioned by New Scotland Yard to study the effectiveness of police interviews with terrorist suspects Includes chapters discussing the context in which people become suicide bombers

Martyrdom And Terrorism

Author: Dominic Janes
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199376514
Size: 65.32 MB
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In recent years, terrorism has become closely associated with martyrdom in the minds of many terrorists and in the view of nations around the world. In Islam, martyrdom is mostly conceived as "bearing witness" to faith and God. Martyrdom is also central to the Christian tradition, not only in the form of Christ's Passion or saints faced with persecution and death, but in the duty to lead a good and charitable life. In both religions, the association of religious martyrdom with political terror has a long and difficult history. The essays of this volume illuminate this history--following, for example, Christian martyrdom from its origins in the Roman world, to the experience of the deaths of "terrorist" leaders of the French Revolution, to parallels in the contemporary world--and explore historical parallels among Islamic, Christian, and secular traditions. Featuring essays from eminent scholars in a wide range of disciplines, Martyrdom and Terrorism provides a timely comparative history of the practices and discourses of terrorism and martyrdom from antiquity to the twenty-first century.

The Arts In Nazi Germany

Author: Jonathan Huener
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 184545359X
Size: 61.83 MB
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"Culture and the arts played a central role in the ideology and propaganda of National Socialism from the early years of the movement until the last months of the Third Reich in 1945.... This volume's essays explore these and other aspects of the arts and cultural life under National Socialism...."--Cover.