Fluorine And The Environment Agrochemicals Archaeology Green Chemistry And Water

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Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080465616
Size: 71.19 MB
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Advances in Fluorine Science is a new book series presenting critical multidisciplinary overviews on areas in which fluorine and fluoride compounds have a decisive impact. The individual volumes of Advances in Fluorine Science are thematic, addressing comprehensively both the science and applications on topics including the Environment, Green chemistry, Medicine, Health & Life Sciences, New Technologies & Materials Science, Energy and the Earth Sciences. In the present volume, the key-position of fluoro-products in agriculture is reviewed, since a large percentage of agro-chemicals and pesticides contain at least one fluorine atom. However, improvements in the use of fluorine-based products in agrochemicals cannot be developed without taking into consideration a safer environment, on both levels of greener synthesis routes and a reduction of the negative impact on plants and organisms. Within this scope, fluorine has a very peculiar place, since its high reactivity yields several advantages, for instance in by-passing various polluting multi-step reactions. Fluorine-based materials are reviewed as efficient tools for protecting our cultural heritage. Also using up-to-date techniques such as ion beam analysis, this element can help relative dating applications, ranging from burial durations of archaeological bones and teeth to the determination of exposure ages of meteorites on the Antarctic ice shield. Providing an original approach of the complex relationships between chemistry and the environment Reviewing the key-position of fluoro-products in agriculture Multidisciplinary contributions from chemists, geologists, biologists, environmentalists and industry staffs

Fluorine And Health

Author: Alain Tressaud
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080558110
Size: 22.17 MB
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Fluorine and Health presents a critical multidisciplinary overview on the contribution of fluorinated compounds to resolve the important global issue of medicinal monitoring and health care. The involved subjects are organized in three thematic parts devoted to Molecular Imaging, Biomedical Materials and Pharmaceuticals. Initially the key-position of partially fluorinated low molecular weight compounds labelled either with the natural 19F-isotope for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or labelled with the radioactive [18F]-isotope for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is highlighted. Both non-invasive methods belong to the most challenging in vivo imaging techniques in oncology, neurology and in cardiology for the diagnosis of diseases having the highest mortality in the industrialized countries. The manifold facets of fluorinated biomaterials range from inorganic ceramics to perfluorinated organic molecules. Liquid perfluorocarbons are suitable for oxygen transport and as potential respiratory gas carriers, while fluorinated polymers are connected to the pathology of blood vessels. Another important issue concerns the application of highly fluorinated liquids in ophthalmology. Moreover, fluorine is an essential trace element in bone mineral, dentine and tooth enamel and is applied for the prophylaxis and treatment of dental caries. The various origins of human exposure to fluoride species is detailed to promote a better understanding of the effect of fluoride species on living organisms. Medicinally relevant fluorinated molecules and their interactions with native proteins are the main focus of the third part. New molecules fluorinated in strategic position are crucial for the development of pharmaceuticals with desired action and optimal pharmacological profile. Among the hundreds of marketed active drug components there are more than 150 fluorinated compounds. The chapters will illustrate how the presence of fluorine atoms alters properties of bioactive compounds at various biochemical steps, and possibly facilitate its emergence as pharmaceuticals. Finally the synthetic potential of a fluorinase, the first C-F bond forming enzyme, is summarized. - New approach of topics involving chemistry, biology and medicinal techniques - Transdisciplinar papers on fluoride products - Importance of fluoride products in health - Updated data on specific topics

Green Organic Chemistry In Lecture And Laboratory

Author: Andrew P. Dicks
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439840768
Size: 65.22 MB
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The last decade has seen a huge interest in green organic chemistry, particularly as chemical educators look to "green" their undergraduate curricula. Detailing published laboratory experiments and proven case studies, this book discusses concrete examples of green organic chemistry teaching approaches from both lecture/seminar and practical perspectives. The experienced contributors address such topics as the elimination of solvents in the organic laboratory, organic reactions under aqueous conditions, organic reactions in non-aqueous media, greener organic reagents, waste management/recycling strategies, and microwave technology as a greener heating tool. This reference allows instructors to directly incorporate material presented in the text into their courses. Encouraging a stimulating organic chemistry experience, the text emphasizes the need for undergraduate education to: Focus on teaching sustainability principles throughout the curriculum Be flexible in the teaching of green chemistry, from modification of an existing laboratory experiment to development of a brand-new course Reflect modern green research areas such as microwave reactivity, alternative reaction solvents, solvent-free chemistry, environmentally friendly reagents, and waste disposal Train students in the "green chemistry decision-making" process Integrating recent research advances in green chemistry research and the Twelve Principles of Organic Chemistry into the lecture and laboratory environments, Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory highlights smaller, more cost-effective experiments with minimized waste disposal and reduced reaction times. This approach develops a fascinating and relevant undergraduate organic laboratory experience while focusing on real-world applications and problem-solving.

Modern Synthesis Processes And Reactivity Of Fluorinated Compounds

Author: Henri Groult
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128037903
Size: 32.75 MB
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Modern Synthesis Processes and Reactivity of Fluorinated Compounds focuses on the exceptional character of fluorine and fluorinated compounds. This comprehensive work explores examples taken from all classes of fluorine chemistry and illustrates the extreme reactivity of fluorinating media and the peculiar synthesis routes to fluorinated materials. The book provides advanced and updated information on the latest synthesis routes to fluorocompounds and the involved reaction mechanisms. Special attention is given to the unique reactivity of fluorine and fluorinated media, along with the correlation of those properties to valuable applications of fluorinated compounds. Contains quality content edited, and contributed, by leading scholars in the field Presents applied guidance on the preparation of original fluorinated compounds, potentially transferable from the lab scale to industrial applications Provides practical synthesis information for a wide audience interested in fluorine compounds in many branches of chemistry, materials science, and physics

Modern Methods In Crop Protection Research

Author: Peter Jeschke
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527655921
Size: 52.43 MB
Format: PDF
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This handbook and ready reference highlights a couple of basic aspects of recently developed new methods in modern crop protection research, authored by renowned experts from major agrochemical companies. Organized into four major parts that trace the key phases of the compound development process, the first section addresses compound design, while the second covers newly developed methods for the identification of the mode of action of agrochemical compounds. The third part describes methods used in improving the bioavailability of compounds, and the final section looks at modern methods for risk assessment. As a result, the agrochemical developer will find here a valuable toolbox of advanced methods, complete with first-hand practical advice and copious examples from current industrial practice.

Analytical Chemistry In Archaeology

Author: A. M. Pollard
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521655729
Size: 54.70 MB
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This book is an introductory manual that explains the basic concepts of chemistry behind scientific analytical techniques and that reviews their application to archaeology. It explains key terminology, outlines the procedures to be followed in order to produce good data, and describes the function of the basic instrumentation required to carry out those procedures. The manual contains chapters on the basic chemistry and physics necessary to understand the techniques used in analytical chemistry, with more detailed chapters on Atomic Absorption, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy, Neutron Activation Analysis, X-ray Flourescence, Electron Microscopy, Infra-red and Raman Spectroscopy, and Mass Spectrometry. Each chapter describes the operation of the instruments, some hints on the practicalities, and a review of the application of the technique to archaeology, including some case studies. With guides to further reading on the topic, it is an essential tool for practitioners, researchers and advanced students alike.

Radiocarbon Dating Second Edition

Author: R.E. Taylor
Publisher: Left Coast Press
ISBN: 1598745905
Size: 15.56 MB
Format: PDF
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This volume is a major revision and expansion of Taylor s seminal book Radiocarbon Dating: An Archaeological Perspective, again providing a benchmark for the method and critically reflecting on the data that underpins the chronologies used to understand the prehistoric archaeological record."

Tea In Health And Disease Prevention

Author: Victor R. Preedy
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123849381
Size: 21.33 MB
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While there have been many claims of the benefits of teas through the years, and while there is nearly universal agreement that drinking tea can benefit health, there is still a concern over whether the lab-generated results are representative of real-life benefit, what the risk of toxicity might be, and what the effective-level thresholds are for various purposes. Clearly there are still questions about the efficacy and use of tea for health benefit. This book presents a comprehensive look at the compounds in black, green, and white teas, their reported benefits (or toxicity risks) and also explores them on a health-condition specific level, providing researchers and academics with a single-volume resource to help in identifying potential treatment uses. No other book on the market considers all the varieties of teas in one volume, or takes the disease-focused approach that will assist in directing further research and studies. Interdisciplinary presentation of material assists in identifying potential cross-over benefits and similarities between tea sources and diseases Assists in identifying therapeutic benefits for new product development Includes coverage and comparison of the most important types of tea - green, black and white

Green Chemistry And Catalysis

Author: R. A. Sheldon
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527611010
Size: 77.97 MB
Format: PDF
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This first book to focus on catalytic processes from the viewpoint of green chemistry presents every important aspect: ? Numerous catalytic reductions and oxidations methods ? Solid-acid and solid-base catalysis ? C-C bond formation reactions ? Biocatalysis ? Asymmetric catalysis ? Novel reaction media like e.g. ionic liquids, supercritical CO2 ? Renewable raw materials Written by Roger A. Sheldon -- without doubt one of the leaders in the field with much experience in academia and industry -- and his co-workers, the result is a unified whole, an indispensable source for every scientist looking to improve catalytic reactions, whether in the college or company lab.

Advances In Microbial Biotechnology

Author: Pradeep Kumar,
Publisher: Apple Academic Press
ISBN: 9781771886673
Size: 39.46 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Over the last few decades, the rapid and vast development of advanced microbial bioresources and metagenomics techniques has completely transformed the field of microbial biotechnology. Our understanding of microbial diversity, evolutionary biology, and microbial interaction with their animal and plant hosts at molecular level has been revolutionized with an abundance of new research. This new volume, Advances in Microbial Biotechnology: Current Trends and Future Prospect, focuses on the application of microorganisms for several purposes: for plant protection and improvement, for environmental remediation purposes, and for the improvement of human health. Various applications of microorganisms are covered broadly and have been appropriately reflected in depth in different chapters. The book is divided into four major sections: applied microbiology in agriculture microbes in the environment microbes in human health microbes in nanotechnology The book provides insight into the diverse microorganisms that have been explored and exploited in the development of various applications for agricultural improvements. The book also looks at the application of microbes for the removal of pollutants and the recovery of metals and oils. Also discussed is the detection and exploitation of microorganisms in the diagnosis of human diseases, providing possible holistic approaches to health. This new volume will provide a wealth of information on new research on the application of microbial biotechnology today.