Finding Consciousness

Author: Walter Sinnott-Armstrong
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190280328
Size: 33.31 MB
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Modern medicine enables us to keep many people alive after they have suffered severe brain damage and show no reliable outward signs of consciousness. Many such patients are misdiagnosed as being in a permanent vegetative state when they are actually in a minimally conscious state. This mistake has far-reaching implications for treatment and prognosis. To alleviate this problem, neuroscientists have recently developed new brain-scanning methods to detect consciousness in some of these patients and even to ask them questions, including "Do you want to stay alive?" Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage addresses many questions regarding these recent neuroscientific methods: Is what these methods detect really consciousness? Do patients feel pain? Should we decide whether or not to let them die or are they competent to decide for themselves? And which kinds of treatment should governments and hospitals make available? This edited volume provides contextual information, surveys the issues and positions, and takes controversial stands from a wide variety of prominent contributors in fields ranging from neuroscience and neurology to law and policy to philosophy and ethics. Finding Consciousness should interest not only neuroscientists, clinicians, and ethicists but anyone who might suffer brain damage, which includes us all.

The Neuroethics Of Biomarkers

Author: Matthew L. Baum
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190236272
Size: 19.20 MB
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Neuroscientists are mining nucleic acids, blood, saliva, and brain images in hopes of uncovering biomarkers that could help estimate risk of brain disorders like psychosis and dementia; though the science of bioprediction is young, its prospects are unearthing controversy about how bioprediction should enter hospitals, courtrooms, or state houses. While medicine, law, and policy have established protocols for how presence of disorders should change what we owe each other or who we blame, they have no stock answers for the probabilities that bioprediction offers. The Neuroethics of Biomarkers observes, however, that for many disorders, what we really care about is not their presence per se, but certain risks that they carry. The current reliance of moral and legal structures on a categorical concept of disorder (sick verses well), therefore, obscures difficult questions about what types and magnitudes of probabilities matter. Baum argues that progress in the neuroethics of biomarkers requires the rejection of the binary concept of disorder in favor of a probabilistic one based on biological variation with risk of harm, which Baum names a "Probability Dysfunction." This risk-reorientation clarifies practical ethical issues surrounding the definition of mental disorder in the DSM-5 and the nosology of conditions defined by risk of psychosis and dementia. Baum also challenges the principle that the acceptability of bioprediction should depend primarily on whether it is medically useful by arguing that biomarkers can also be morally useful through enabling moral agency, better assessment of legal responsibility, and fairer distributive justice. The Neuroethics of Biomarkers should be of interest to those within neuroethics, medical ethics, and the philosophy of psychiatry.

Neuroethics In Practice

Author: Anjan Chatterjee
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195389786
Size: 48.62 MB
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This book explores relevant questions within this multi-faceted and rapidly growing field, and will help to define and foster scholarship within the intersection of neuroethics and clinical neuroscience.

Neuroethics

Author: Judy Illes
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198786832
Size: 27.70 MB
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Over the last decade, there have been unparalleled advances in our understanding of brain sciences. But with the development of tools that can manipulate brain function, there are pressing ethical implications to this newfound knowledge of how the brain works. In Neuroethics: Anticipating theFuture, a distinguished group of contributors tackle current and critical ethical questions and offer forward-looking insights. What new balances should be struck between diagnosis and prediction, or invasive and non-invasive interventions, given the rapid advances in neuroscience? Are new criteria needed for the clinical definition of death for those eligible for organ donation? As data from emerging technologies are madeavailable on public databases, what frameworks will maximize benefits while ensuring privacy of health information? These challenging questions, along with numerous other neuroethical concerns, are discussed in depth. Written by eminent scholars from diverse disciplines including neurology and neuroscience, ethics and law, public health and philosophy, this new volume on neuroethics sets out the many necessary considerations for the future. It is essential reading for the field of neuroethics, neurosciences andpsychology, and an invaluable resource for physicians in neurological medicine, academics in humanities and law, and health policy makers.

Consciousness And Moral Responsibility

Author: Neil Levy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198704631
Size: 77.53 MB
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Neil Levy presents a new theory of freedom and responsibility. He defends a particular account of consciousness—the global workspace view—and argues that consciousness plays an especially important role in action. There are good reasons to think that the naïve assumption, that consciousness is needed for moral responsibility, is in fact true.

Music And Disorders Of Consciousness Emerging Research Practice And Theory

Author: Wendy L. Magee
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889450996
Size: 62.92 MB
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Music processing in severely brain-injured patients with disorders of consciousness has been an emergent field of interest for over 30 years, spanning the disciplines of neuroscience, medicine, the arts and humanities. Disorders of consciousness (DOC) is an umbrella term that encompasses patients who present with disorders across a continuum of consciousness including people who are in a coma, in vegetative state (VS)/have unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), and in minimally conscious state (MCS). Technological developments in recent years, resulting in improvements in medical care and technologies, have increased DOC population numbers, the means for investigating DOC, and the range of clinical and therapeutic interventions under validation. In neuroimaging and behavioural studies, the auditory modality has been shown to be the most sensitive in diagnosing awareness in this complex population. As misdiagnosis remains a major problem in DOC, exploring auditory responsiveness and processing in DOC is, therefore, of central importance to improve therapeutic interventions and medical technologies in DOC. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the role of music as a potential treatment and medium for diagnosis with patients with DOC, from the perspectives of research, clinical practice and theory. As there are almost no treatment options, such a non-invasive method could constitute a promising strategy to stimulate brain plasticity and to improve consciousness recovery. It is therefore an ideal time to draw together specialists from diverse disciplines and interests to share the latest methods, opinions, and research on this topic in order to identify research priorities and progress inquiry in a coordinated way. This Research Topic aimed to bring together specialists from diverse disciplines involved in using and researching music with DOC populations or who have an interest in theoretical development on this topic. Specialists from the following disciplines participated in this special issue: neuroscience; medicine; music therapy; clinical psychology; neuromusicology; and cognitive neuroscience.

The Fragile Brain

Author: Kathleen Taylor
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191039039
Size: 48.35 MB
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Neurodegenerative diseases, such as a stroke, Alzheimer's and dementia, are now tragically commonplace within the western world. Our brains are a strange and complex organ, and there is much to be discovered about what causes them to fail in such devastating ways. In this book Kathleen Taylor presents the ever-developing research into the cause and cure of these life-changing conditions, focusing on insights arising from the relatively new field of neuroimmunology - the increasing recognition of the important role of the immune system in the brain. Interweaving the latest scientific ideas on neurodegenerative diseases with accounts of the devastation which illnesses affecting the brain can cause to sufferers and to anyone who cares about them, The Fragile Brain is not only an important account of current research in this field, but a very personal study. As instances of dementia rise in our ageing populations, many harbour anxieties concerning the future.This book is about knowing the enemy.

The Impact Of Behavioral Sciences On Criminal Law

Author: Nita Farahany
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199773300
Size: 71.78 MB
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New discoveries from neuroscience and behavioral genetics are besieging criminal law. Novel scientific perspectives on criminal behavior could transform the criminal justice system and yet are being introduced in an ad hoc and often ill-conceived manner. Bringing together experts across multiple disciplines, including geneticists, neuroscientists, philosophers, policymakers, and legal scholars, The Impact of Behavioral Sciences on Criminal Law is a comprehensive collection of essays that address the emerging science from behavioral genetics and neuroscience and its developing impact on the criminal justice system. The essays survey how the science is and will likely be used in criminal law and the policy and the ethical issues that arise from its use for criminal law and for society.

Visceral Sensory Neuroscience

Author: Oliver G. Cameron
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195136012
Size: 57.52 MB
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The term Interception refers to information that is sent by the nervous system from the body to the brain. Despite its importance in the control of visceral organ function, emotional-motivational processes, and in psychosomatic disorders, the topic has not received as much attention as central functions of the nervous system. This book provides the first review of the field and will be of interest to scientists in neurobiology, psychology, and brain imaging, to individuals in related clinical fields such as psychiatry, neurology, cardiology, gastroenterology, and clinical psychology, and to their students and trainees.

Morality Without God

Author: Walter Sinnott-Armstrong
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0195337638
Size: 13.88 MB
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A common refrain against atheism and secular humanism is that without belief in God, "everything is permitted." Walter Sinnott-Armstrong dismantles this argument and argues instead that God is not only not essential to morality, but that our moral behavior should be seen as utterly independent of religion. This short, accessible book is on a major aspect of the arguments against atheism and will interest those intrigued by the "new atheism" (Harris, Dawkins, etc).