Error And Inference

Author: Deborah G. Mayo
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521180252
Size: 46.86 MB
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Explores the nature of error and inference, drawing on exchanges on experimental reasoning, reliability, and the objectivity of science.

Patterns Of Rationality

Author: Tommaso Bertolotti
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319177869
Size: 49.44 MB
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This book proposes an applied epistemological framework for investigating science, social cognition and religious thinking based on inferential patterns that recur in the different domains. It presents human rationality as a tool that allows us to make sense of our (physical or social) surroundings. It shows that the resulting cognitive activity produces a broad spectrum of outputs, such as scientific models and experimentation, gossip and social networks, but also ancient and contemporary deities. The book consists of three parts, the first of which addresses scientific modeling and experimentation, and their application to the analysis of scientific rationality. Thus, this part continues the tradition of eco-cognitive epistemology and abduction studies. The second part deals with the relationship between social cognition and cognitive niche construction, i.e. the evolutionarily relevant externalization of knowledge onto the environment, while the third part focuses on what is commonly defined as “irrational”, thus being in a way dialectically opposed to the first part. Here, the author demonstrates that the “irrational” can be analyzed by applying the same epistemological approach used to study scientific rationality and social cognition; also in this case, we see the emergence of patterns of rationality that regulate the relationships between agents and their environment. All in all, the book offers a coherent and unitary account of human rationality, providing a basis for new conceptual connections and theoretical speculations.

Philosophy Of Science Matters

Author: Gregory J. Morgan
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0199738629
Size: 34.76 MB
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Nineteen distinguished philosophers, including four Lakatos award winners, address various aspects of Peter Achinstein's influential views on the nature of scientific evidence, explanation, and realism -- with replies from Achinstein himself.

Error And The Growth Of Experimental Knowledge

Author: Deborah G. Mayo
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226511979
Size: 20.27 MB
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This text provides a critique of the subjective Bayesian view of statistical inference, and proposes the author's own error-statistical approach as an alternative framework for the epistemology of experiment. It seeks to address the needs of researchers who work with statistical analysis.

The Philosophy Of Quantitative Methods

Author: Brian D. Haig
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190222069
Size: 70.96 MB
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The Philosophy of Quantitative Methods focuses on the conceptual foundations of research methods within the behavioral sciences. In particular, it undertakes a close philosophical examination of a variety of quantitative research methods that are prominent in (or relevant for) the conduct of research in these fields. By doing so, the deep structure of these methods is examined in order to overcome the non-critical approaches typically found in the existing literature today. In this book, Brian D. Haig focuses on the more well-known research methods such as exploratory data analysis, statistical significant testing, Bayesian confirmation theory and statistics, meta-analysis, and exploratory factor analysis. These methods are then examined with a philosophy consistent of scientific realism. In addition, each chapter provides a helpful Further Reading section in order to better assist the reader in extending their own thinking and research methods specific to their needs.

Handbook Of The Psychology Of Science

Author: Gregory J. Feist, PhD
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 0826106242
Size: 71.17 MB
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"Highly recommended."--Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries This handbook is the definitive resource for scholars and students interested in how research and theory within each of the major domains of psychologyódevelopmental, cognitive, personality, and socialóhave been applied to understand the nature of scientific thought and behavior. Edited by two esteemed pioneers in the emerging discipline of the psychology of science, it is the first empirically based compendium of its time. The handbook provides a comprehensive examination of how scientific thinking is learned and evolves from infancy to adolescence and adulthood, and combines developmental and cognitive approaches to show the categorical similarities and differences in thinking between children, adolescents, adults, and scientists. Chapters highlight the breadth and depth of psychological perspectives in the studies of science, from creativity and genius, gender, and conflict and cooperation, to postmodernism and psychobiography. A section on applications offers findings and ideas that can be put to use by educators, policymakers, and science administrators. Contributors examine the importance of mental models in solving difficult technical problems, and the significance of leadership and organizational structure in successful innovation. The final section of the book is devoted to the future of this new field, focusing on how to continue to develop a healthy psychology of science. Key Features: Presents the only empirically based compendium of current knowledge about the psychology of scientific thought and behavior Edited by two pioneers in the discipline of psychology of science Describes how scientific thinking is learned and changes throughout the life span Addresses creativity and genius, gender, conflict and cooperation, postmodernism, and psychobiography Covers applications of the psychology of science that can be used by educators, policymakers, and science administrators

Probability Theory And Statistical Inference

Author: Aris Spanos
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521424080
Size: 42.28 MB
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A major textbook for students taking introductory courses in probability theory and statistical inference.

Scientific Inference

Author: Harold Jeffreys
Publisher: Read Books Ltd
ISBN: 1447494784
Size: 52.16 MB
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Originally published in 1931. The present work had its beginnings in a series of papers published jointly some years ago by Dr Dorothy Wrinch and myself. Both before and since that time several books purporting to give analyses of the principles of scientific inquiry have appeared, but it seems to me that none of them gives adequate attention to the chief guiding principle of both scientific and everyday knowledge that it is possible to learn from experience and to make inferences from it beyond the data directly known by sensation. Discussions from the philosophical and logical point of view have tended to the conclusion that this principle cannot be justified by logic alone, which is true, and have left it at that. In discussions by physicists, on the other hand, it hardly seems to be noticed that such a principle exists. In the present work the principle is frankly adopted as a primitive postulate and its consequences are developed. It is found to lead to an explanation and a justification of the high probabilities attached in practice to simple quantitative laws, and thereby to a recasting of the processes involved in description. As illustrations of the actual relations of scientific laws to experience it is shown how the sciences of mensuration and dynamics may be developed. I have been stimulated to an interest in the subject myself on account of the fact that in my work in the subjects of cosmogony and geophysics it has habitually been necessary to apply physical laws far beyond their original range of verification in both time and distance, and the problems involved in such extrapolation have therefore always been prominent. This is a high quality digital version of the original title, thus a few of the images may be slightly blurred and difficult to read.

Statistical Inference As Severe Testing

Author: Deborah G. Mayo
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107054133
Size: 15.39 MB
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Unlock today's statistical controversies and irreproducible results by viewing statistics as probing and controlling errors.

Truth Error And Criminal Law

Author: Larry Laudan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 113945708X
Size: 37.33 MB
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Beginning with the premise that the principal function of a criminal trial is to find out the truth about a crime, Larry Laudan examines the rules of evidence and procedure that would be appropriate if the discovery of the truth were, as higher courts routinely claim, the overriding aim of the criminal justice system. Laudan mounts a systematic critique of existing rules and procedures that are obstacles to that quest. He also examines issues of error distribution by offering the first integrated analysis of the various mechanisms - the standard of proof, the benefit of the doubt, the presumption of innocence and the burden of proof - for implementing society's view about the relative importance of the errors that can occur in a trial.