Environmental Burden Of Disease Assessment

Author: Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400759258
Size: 62.42 MB
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This publication characterizes the environmental burden of disease in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), measured by the excess number of deaths and illnesses in the population due to exposure to environmental hazards. The robust methods used in this risk analysis can be applied to any country or region. This publication documents the systematic, multi-step process used to identify environmental priorities and the detailed methods used to quantify the disease burden attributable to each risk. Based on the results of the burden of disease assessment, the publication summarizes the subsequent steps that are recommended to further reduce the burden of disease resulting from various environmental risk factors.​ Authors and Contributors This book represents the synthesis of research carried out by a large, interdisciplinary team from several institutions and multiple nations between June 2008 and June 2011.The lead authors are responsible for weaving together the pieces prepared by the team.Nonetheless, this book would not have been possible without major contributions from each team member.The list below shows contributors to each chapter.Following this list are biographies of all of the authors and contributors. Lead Authors Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson, Frederic J. P. Launay, Jens T. W. Thomsen, Angela Brammer, Christopher Davidson Additional Contributors (by Chapter) Chapter 2: Prioritizing Environmental Risks to Health Henry H. Willis, Aimee Curtright, Gary Cecchine, Zeinab S. Farah,Sandra A. Geschwind, Jianhui Hu, Ying Li, Melinda Moore, Sarah Olmstead, Hanine Salem, Regina A. Shih, J. Jason West Chapter 3: Assessing the Environmental Burden of Disease:Method Overview Tiina Folley, Elizabeth S. Harder, Mejs Hasan Chapter 4: Burden of Disease from Outdoor Air Pollution Ying Li, Gavino Puggioni, Prahlad Jat, Mejs Hasan, Marc Serre, Kenneth G. Sexton, J. Jason West, Saravanan Arunachalam, Uma Shankar, William Vizuete, Mohammed Zuber Farooqui Chapter 5: Burden of Disease from Indoor Air Pollution Chris B. Trent Chapter 6: Burden of Disease from Occupational Exposures Tiina Folley, Leena A. Nylander-French Chapter 7: Burden of Disease from Climate Change Richard N. L. Andrews, Leslie Chinery, Elizabeth S. Harder, J. Jason West Chapter 8: Burden of Disease from Drinking Water Contamination Gregory W. Characklis, Joseph N. LoBuglio Chapter 9: Burden of Disease from Coastal Water Pollution Gregory W. Characklis, Leigh-Anne H. Krometis, Joseph N. LoBuglio Chapter 10: Burden of Disease from Soil and Groundwater Contamination Chidsanuphong Chart-asa, Stephanie Soucheray-Grell Chapter 11: Burden of Disease from Produce and Seafood Contamination Leigh-Anne H. Krometis, Leslie Chinery

Advances In Spatial And Temporal Databases

Author: Christophe Claramunt
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319223631
Size: 26.19 MB
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Spatial and Temporal Databases, SSTD 2015, held in Hong Kong, China, in August 2015. The 24 revised full papers together with 8 demos presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 64 submissions. The conference program has the scope on following subjects: reachability query and path query, reverse query and indexing, navigation and routing, trajectory analysis, spatio-temporal approaches, privacy and matching, similarity search and pattern, keyword and pattern.

Air Pollution

Author: Bhola R. Gurjar
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439809631
Size: 61.19 MB
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Air pollution is recognized as one of the leading contributors to the global environmental burden of disease, even in countries with relatively low concentrations of air pollution. Air Pollution: Health and Environmental Impacts examines the effect of this complex problem on human health and the environment in different settings around the world. It not only covers general modeling, monitoring, and characterization techniques but also includes field studies and cases that offer valuable insight into region-specific issues. With contributions from a distinguished group of international experts, the book explores ways of controlling air pollution and mitigating its adverse effects on human health and the environment. Often taking a regional and global perspective, it discusses the monitoring and source characterization of air pollution, the theory and application of air quality modeling, health effects and risk assessment, and the environmental impacts of air pollution. The book also addresses air quality management and relevant policy issues. Along with providing an understanding of the scientific basis of air pollution, this volume helps readers better appreciate social and environmental determinants of public health and apply country-based research evidence to reduce health disparities and environmental inequalities. It also encourages future research and policy action on the health and environmental consequences of air pollution from the local to global level.

Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments

Author: Annette Prüss-Üstün
Publisher: World Health Organization
ISBN: 9241565195
Size: 64.94 MB
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"The main message emerging from this new comprehensive global assessment is that premature death and disease can be prevented through healthier environments--and to a significant degree. Analysing the latest data on the environment-disease nexus and the devastating impact of environmental hazards and risks on global health, backed up by expert opinion, this report covers more than 130 diseases and injuries. The analysis shows that 23% of global deaths (and 26% of deaths among children under five) are due to modifiable environmental factors--and therefore can be prevented. Stroke, ischaemic heart disease, diarrhoea and cancers head the list. People in low-income countries bear the greatest disease burden, with the exception of noncommunicable diseases. The report's unequivocal evidence should add impetus to coordinating global efforts to promote healthy environments--often through well-established, cost-effective interventions. This analysis will inform those who want to better understand the transformational spirit of the Sustainable Development Goals agreed by Heads of State in September 2015. The results of the analysis underscore the pressing importance of stronger intersectoral action to create healthier environments that will contribute to sustainably improving the lives of millions around the world."--Page 4 of cover.

Epistemological Aspects Of Computer Simulation In The Social Sciences

Author: Flaminio Squazzoni
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642011098
Size: 44.24 MB
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This volume collects the revised versions of the invited and selected papers that were presented at the Second EPOS––Epistemological Perspectives on Simulation––Workshop, held in Brescia, Italy, in October 2006. EPOS is a bi-annual cross-disciplinary workshop on simulation originally established by Ulrich Frank and Klaus G. Troitzsch, with a first e- tion held in Koblenz in July 2004. EPOS aims to provide a forum for scholars from various disciplines, such as the social sciences, computer sciences, engineering and natural sciences, who are interested in discussing epistemological aspects of computer simulation across disciplinary boundaries. The common belief behind the workshop is the recognition that the time has come to seriously reflect on epistemological and methodological preconditions, processes and consequences of simulation as a research tool. During the fist edition in Koblenz 2004, a number of interesting topics were ca- fully addressed: the link between theory and simulation models, the empirical vali- tion of agent-based models in the natural and the social sciences, the relation between models and truth, as well as the role of stylized facts in evidence-based models. A good cross-disciplinary atmosphere permeated the workshop, making possible the exchange of knowledge and ideas beyond any disciplinary boundary. The first EPOS proceedings were edited by Ulrich Frank and Klaus G. Troitzsch and published in the Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2005.

The Sustainable Learning Community

Author: John Aber
Publisher: UPNE
ISBN: 1584658371
Size: 80.20 MB
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Case studies from the University of New Hampshire explore all the dimensions of sustainability in campus life, combining frugality and creativity

Cancer As An Environmental Disease

Author: P. Nicolopoulou-Stamati
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402020193
Size: 41.38 MB
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During recent decades the somatic mutation theory for the causation of cancer has held sway. The influence of environmental factors in the aetiology of cancer has become a matter of debate between those who maintain that it is largely a degenerative phenomenon and other voices who increasingly support the hypothesis that environmental factors predominate. An examination of some aspects of this debate is the prime purpose of this book. The increasing incidence of cancer across many parts of the world, particularly in children, has happened over a very short period of time in evolutionary terms. One can infer that it is connected to changes in the environment and/or our lifestyles. A major counter-argument to this contention is that rising cancer incidence is mainly because the average life expectancy has increased.These pages contain a number of chapters from specialists in the field who consider, from a number of different perspectives, the currently available evidence that supports the environmental cancer,aetiology hypothesis. This constitutes the first part of the book. In the second part of the book, an examination of the policy implications of accepting that the cancer epidemic may essentially be preventable is presented. This will pose some difficult problems for politicians and decision-makers, who will have to consider adopting policies that may damage the economy in the short term in order to reap health benefits which will only become apparent several decades in the future.

Global Health Risks

Author: World Health Organization
Publisher: World Health Organization
ISBN: 9241563877
Size: 47.50 MB
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This publication is a comprehensive assessment of leading risks to global health. It provides detailed global and regional estimates of premature mortality, disability and loss of health attributable to 24 global risk factors.--Publisher's description.

Burden Of Disease From Environmental Noise

Author:
Publisher: World Health Organization
ISBN: 9789289002295
Size: 48.13 MB
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The health impacts of environmental noise are a growing concern. At least one million healthy life years are lost every year from traffic-related noise in the western part of Europe. This publication summarizes the evidence on the relationship between environmental noise and health effects, including cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbance, tinnitus, and annoyance. For each one, the environmental burden of disease methodology, based on exposure-response relationship, exposure distribution, background prevalence of disease and disability weights of the outcome, is applied to calculate the burden of disease in terms of disability-adjusted life-years. Data are still lacking for the rest of the WHO European Region. This publication provides policy-makers and their advisers with technical support in their quantitative risk assessment of environmental noise. International, national and local authorities can use the procedure for estimating burdens presented here to prioritize and plan environmental and public health policies.

Health Impacts Of Waste Management Policies

Author: Polyxeni Nicolopoulou-Stamati
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940159550X
Size: 37.37 MB
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This chapter introduces key themes from the book, reflecting the topics of the 'Awareness of the Health Impacts of Waste Management Policies' Seminar, in Kos, Greece. November, 1998. The waste management and health scene is introduced by an outline of concems relating to persistent organic pollutants, as well as through perspectives from Less Developed Countries and from industry. An overview of policy lines for waste management includes an assessment of recent proposals by the European Commission, as well as selected examples from European countries and the USA. Descriptions of developments in research, tools and conceptual approaches for waste management and health issues are provided. Research into health effects of dioxins and PCBs is outlined, as are reviews of technological options for waste management, proposed developments in health impact assessment, environmental taxes as a waste management tool, and integrated regional waste management approaches. A series of case studies provide real world examples of research and policy development including a review of the effects of waste management on wildlife and domestic animals. In conclusion, important crossover themes and challenges are outlined. Topical issues include differences between technological capacity and actual performance, burden of proof and the precautionary principle, hazard versus risk assessment, and societal dimensions of awareness and attitudes. Time-lag, intergenerational effects and the introduction of the chemical hygiene concept are highlighted as important considerations, as well as the general need for prioritisation of the child and infant in all regulatory procedures.