Engines Of Discovery

Author: Andrew Sessler
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814417335
Size: 10.88 MB
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The first edition of Engines of Discovery celebrated in words, images and anecdotes the accelerators and their constructors that culminated in the discovery of the Higgs boson. But even before the Higgs was discovered, before the champagne corks popped and while the television producers brushed up their quantum mechanics, a new wave of enthusiasm for accelerators to be applied for more practical purposes was gaining momentum. Almost all fields of human endeavour will be enhanced by this trend: energy conservation, medical diagnostics and treatment, national security, as well as industrial processing. Accelerators have been used most spectacularly to reveal the structure of the complex molecules that determine our metabolism and life. For every accelerator chasing the Higgs, there are now ten thousand serving other purposes. It is high time to move from abstract mathematics and philosophy to the practical needs of humankind. It is the aim of this revised and expanded edition to describe this revolution in a manner which will attract the young, not only to apply their curiosity to the building blocks of matter but to help them contribute to the improvement of the quality of life itself on this planet. As always, the authors have tried to avoid lengthy mathematical description. In describing a field which reaches out to almost all of today's cutting edge technology, some detailed explanation cannot be avoided but this has been confined to sidebars. References guide experts to move on to the journal Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology and other publications for more information. But first we would urge every young physicist, teacher, journalist and politician to read this book. Contents:Electrostatic AcceleratorsCyclotronsLinear AcceleratorsBetatronsSynchrotronsCollidersNeutrino Super Beams, Neutrino Factories and Muon CollidersDetectorsHigh-Energy and Nuclear PhysicsSynchrotron Radiation SourcesIsotope Production and Cancer Therapy AcceleratorsSpallation Neutron SourcesAccelerators in Industry and ElsewhereNational SecurityEnergy and the EnvironmentA Final Word — Mainly to the Young Readership: Scientists, research physicists, engineers and administrators at accelerator laboratories; general readers; undergraduates and graduates in physics, electrical engineering and the history of science. Keywords:Particle Accelerators;Physics;Engineering;History;International;Synchrotron;Collider;Linac;Radiation TreatmentReviews: “This updated edition of Engines of Discovery convincingly demonstrates that ‘a century of particle accelerators’ is still progressing, and the history of these ingenious machines will span centuries. A fascinating story of inventions and breakthroughs, presented to us by two prominent scientists, takes the reader through a mesmerising gallery of revolutionary developments in accelerator science and technology. The book is a wonderful source of inspiration and will be a great companion to the young and curious who, undoubtedly, will be the ones to make new breakthroughs and new discoveries in the future.” Professor Andrei A Seryi Director, John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science University of Oxford, Royal Holloway University of London and Imperial College London “Andrew Sessler's and Edmund Wilson's history of accelerators is a rich tapestry illustrating an intellectual adventure story with its own heroes, dramas, competitions, and even missteps and a few villains. They explain the imaginative physical and engineering insights that accelerator pioneers have employed to make modern accelerators engines of commerce and engines of well being as well as the quintessential engines of discovery. They describe this human enterprise in language that is easily accessible to the layman. Their book is lavishly illustrated with photographs of ground-breaking machines and their applications from the dawn of the accelerator age to the present.” William A Barletta USPAS Director Adjunct Professor of Physics, MIT & UCLA Visiting Professor of Economics, Univ. of Ljubljana “Accelerators have become essential tools in many areas of research, ranging from medicine through biology, chemistry and physics to archaeology. They also play vital roles in medicine and industry. Sessler and Wilson's wide-ranging history of the development of accelerators and their uses will appeal to everyone with an interest in how science and technology progress. They provide an insiders' perspective, illustrated by a wealth of anecdotes and sketches of engineers and scientists who have advanced the state of the art. Their book will enlighten and entertain experts as well as general readers.” Professor Sir Chris Llewellyn Smith FRS Director of Energy Research Oxford University President of the Council of SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East), and Director General of CERN (1994–98) “In this revised edition of Engines of Discovery, the authors have substantially expanded their text on accelerators. From principles to applications reaching deep into the specialized fields involving dedicated accelerators, the book describes the history and the state of the art of accelerator-based facilities used by experimental scientists worldwide. In particular the applications of accelerators in research and industry, medicine and security systems highlight the important role of accelerators and their vast impact on our daily life.” Norbert Holtkamp Associate Laboratory Director, Accelerator Directorate SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford “This book will stand as part of Andrew Sessler's legacy to future generations. The hope is that it will inspire budding young scientists and engineers today, for they are the future of the field.” Christine Sutton CERN “In conclusion, the book offers a very pleasant trip in the world of accelerators and applications, putting particular emphasis on the facilities designed and realized to give answers to common life questions.” Il Nuovo Saggiatore

Introduction To Nuclear And Particle Physics

Author: A Das
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814483338
Size: 29.63 MB
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' The original edition of Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics was used with great success for single-semester courses on nuclear and particle physics offered by American and Canadian universities at the undergraduate level. It was also translated into German, and used overseas. Being less formal but well-written, this book is a good vehicle for learning the more intuitive rather than formal aspects of the subject. It is therefore of value to scientists with a minimal background in quantum mechanics, but is sufficiently substantive to have been recommended for graduate students interested in the fields covered in the text. In the second edition, the material begins with an exceptionally clear development of Rutherford scattering and, in the four following chapters, discusses sundry phenomenological issues concerning nuclear properties and structure, and general applications of radioactivity and of the nuclear force. This is followed by two chapters dealing with interactions of particles in matter, and how these characteristics are used to detect and identify such particles. A chapter on accelerators rounds out the experimental aspects of the field. The final seven chapters deal with elementary-particle phenomena, both before and after the realization of the Standard Model. This is interspersed with discussion of symmetries in classical physics and in the quantum domain, bringing into full focus the issues concerning CP violation, isotopic spin, and other symmetries. The final three chapters are devoted to the Standard Model and to possibly new physics beyond it, emphasizing unification of forces, supersymmetry, and other exciting areas of current research. The book contains several appendices on related subjects, such as special relativity, the nature of symmetry groups, etc. There are also many examples and problems in the text that are of value in gauging the reader's understanding of the material. Contents:Rutherford ScatteringNuclear PhenomenologyNuclear ModelsNuclear RadiationApplications of Nuclear PhysicsEnergy Deposition in MediaParticle DetectionAcceleratorsProperties and Interactions of Elementary ParticlesSymmetriesDiscrete TransformationsNeutral Kaons, Oscillations, and CP ViolationFormulation of the Standard ModelStandard Model and Confrontation with DataBeyond the Standard Model Readership: Advanced undergraduates and researchers in nuclear and particle physics. Keywords:Rutherford Scattering;Nuclear Properties;Nuclear Structure;Elementary Particles;Sub-Structure of Particles;Particle Detectors;Interactions in Matter;The Standard Model;Symmetries of Nature;Theories of Nuclear and Particle Structure;Radioactivity;SupersymmetryReviews: “The book by Das and Ferbel is particularly suited as a basis for a one-semester course on both subjects since it contains a very concise introduction to those topics and I like very much the outline and contents of this book.” Kay Konigsmann Universität Freiburg, Germany “The book provides an introduction to the subject very well suited for the introductory course for physics majors. Presentation is very clear and nicely balances the issues of nuclear and particle physics, exposes both theoretical ideas and modern experimental methods. Presentation is also very economic and one can cover most of the book in a one-semester course. In the second edition, the authors updated the contents to reflect the very recent developments in the theory and experiment. They managed to do it without substantial increase of the size of the book. I used the first edition several times to teach the course ‘Introduction to Subatomic Physics’ and I am looking forward to use this new edition to teach the course next year.” Professor Mark Strikman Pennsylvania State University, USA “This book can be recommended to those who find elementary particle physics of absorbing interest.” Contemporary Physics '

Industrial Accelerators And Their Applications

Author: Robert W Hamm
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814434612
Size: 55.39 MB
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This unique new book is a comprehensive review of the many current industrial applications of particle accelerators, written by experts in each of these fields. Readers will gain a broad understanding of the principles of these applications, the extent to which they are employed, and the accelerator technology utilized. The book also serves as a thorough introduction to these fields for non-experts and laymen. Due to the increased interest in industrial applications, there is a growing interest among accelerator physicists and many other scientists worldwide in understanding how accelerators are used in various applications. The government agencies that fund scientific research with accelerators are also seeking more information on the many commercial applications that have been or can be developed with the technology developments they are funding. Many industries are also doing more research on how they can improve their products or processes using particle beams Contents: Introduction to the Beam Business (Robert W Hamm and Marianne E Hamm)Ion Implantation for Fabrication of Semiconductor Devices and Materials (Michael I Current)Electron Beam Materials Processing (Donald E Powers)Electron Beam Materials Irradiators (Marshall R Cleland)Accelerator Production of Radionuclides (David J Schlyer and Thomas J Ruth)Industrial Aspects of Ion Beam Analysis (Ragnar Hellborg and Harry J Whitlow)Production and Applications of Neutrons Using Particle Accelerators (David L Chichester)Nondestructive Testing and Inspection Using Electron Linacs (William A Reed)Industrial Use of Synchrotron Radiation: Love at Second Sight (Josef Hormes and Jeffrey Warner) Readership: Physicists, engineers and practitioners in accelerator technology and applications.

Handbook Of Accelerator Physics And Engineering

Author: Alexander Wu Chao
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814415855
Size: 56.50 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Edited by internationally recognized authorities in the field, this expanded and updated new edition of the bestselling Handbook, containing more than 100 new articles, is aimed at the design and operation of modern particle accelerators. It is intended as a vade mecum for professional engineers and physicists engaged in these subjects. With a collection of more than 2000 equations, 300 illustrations and 500 graphs and tables, here one will find, in addition to the common formulae of previous compilations, hard-to-find, specialized formulae, recipes and material data pooled from the lifetime experience of many of the world''s most able practitioners of the art and science of accelerators.The eight chapters include both theoretical and practical matters as well as an extensive glossary of accelerator types. Chapters on beam dynamics and electromagnetic and nuclear interactions deal with linear and nonlinear single particle and collective effects including spin motion, beam-environment, beam-beam, beam-electron, beam-ion and intrabeam interactions. The impedance concept and related calculations are dealt with at length as are the instabilities associated with the various interactions mentioned. A chapter on operational considerations includes discussions on the assessment and correction of orbit and optics errors, real-time feedbacks, generation of short photon pulses, bunch compression, tuning of normal and superconducting linacs, energy recovery linacs, free electron lasers, cooling, space-charge compensation, brightness of light sources, collider luminosity optimization and collision schemes. Chapters on mechanical and electrical considerations present material data and important aspects of component design including heat transfer and refrigeration. Hardware systems for particle sources, feedback systems, confinement and acceleration (both normal conducting and superconducting) receive detailed treatment in a subsystems chapter, beam measurement techniques and apparatus being treated therein as well. The closing chapter gives data and methods for radiation protection computations as well as much data on radiation damage to various materials and devices.A detailed name and subject index is provided together with reliable references to the literature where the most detailed information available on all subjects treated can be found.

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology Volume 5

Author: Alexander W. Chao
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated
ISBN: 9789814449946
Size: 28.67 MB
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Over the past several decades major advances in accelerators have resulted from breakthroughs in accelerator science and accelerator technology. After the introduction of a new accelerator physics concept or the implementation of a new technology, a leap in accelerator performance followed. A well-known representation of these advances is the Livingston chart, which shows an exponential growth of accelerator performance over the last seven or eight decades. One of the breakthrough accelerator technologies that support this exponential growth is superconducting technology. Recognizing this major technological advance, we dedicate Volume 5 of Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology (RAST) to superconducting technology and its applications. Two major applications are superconducting magnets (SC magnets) and superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. SC magnets provide much higher magnetic field than their room-temperature counterparts, thus allowing accelerators to reach higher energies with comparable size as well as much reduced power consumption. SRF technology allows field energy storage for continuous wave applications and energy recovery, in addition to the advantage of tremendous power savings and better particle beam quality. In this volume, we describe both technologies and their applications. We also include discussion of the associated R&D in superconducting materials and the future prospects for these technologies.

Beam Dynamics In High Energy Particle Accelerators

Author: Andrzej Wolski
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1783262796
Size: 19.80 MB
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Particle accelerators are essential tools for scientific research in fields as diverse as high energy physics, materials science and structural biology. They are also widely used in industry and medicine. Producing the optimum design and achieving the best performance for an accelerator depends on a detailed understanding of many (often complex and sometimes subtle) effects that determine the properties and behavior of the particle beam. Beam Dynamics in High Energy Particle Accelerators provides an introduction to the concepts underlying accelerator beam line design and analysis, taking an approach that emphasizes the elegance of the subject and leads into the development of a range of powerful techniques for understanding and modeling charged particle beams. Contents:Electromagnetism and Classical Mechanics:Electromagnetic Fields in Accelerator ComponentsHamiltonian for a Particle in an Accelerator Beam LineSingle-Particle Linear Dynamics:Linear Transfer Maps for Common ComponentsLinear Optics in Uncoupled Beam LinesCoupled OpticsLinear Imperfections in Storage RingsEffects of Synchrotron RadiationSingle-Particle Nonlinear Dynamics:Examples of Nonlinear Effects in Accelerator Beam LinesRepresentations of Transfer MapsSymplectic IntegratorsMethods for Analysis of Single-Particle DynamicsCollective Effects:Space ChargeScattering EffectsWake Fields, Wake Functions and ImpedanceCoherent Instabilities Readership: Undergraduate students who are looking for an introduction to beam dynamics, and graduate students and researchers in the field. Key Features:Basic ideas are introduced from the start using an approach that leads logically into the development of more advanced concepts and techniques. In particular, linear dynamics is treated consistently using a Hamiltonian formalism, which provides a suitable foundation not only for perturbation theory, but also for more modern techniques based on Lie operators. The use of a consistent approach makes the progress from introductory to advanced material as straightforward as possibleThe treatment of nonlinear dynamics using Lie operators provides a number of powerful techniques for the analysis of accelerator beam lines. Lie operators are generally found only in more advanced and specialized treatments of nonlinear dynamics. Beam Dynamics in High Energy Particle Accelerators provides an accessible introduction to the subject, and illustrates the use of techniques such as Lie transforms and normal form analysis through examples of particular relevance for beam dynamicsAs well as providing a clear description of the important topics in beam dynamics and an explanation of the physical principles, attention is given to techniques of particular importance for computer modeling of beam dynamics. For example, there is a chapter on symplectic integration that gives explicit formulae for methods that are of some importance in accelerator modeling codes, but have not previously been presented in a book of this kindKeywords:Accelerator Physics;Beam Dynamics;Particle AcceleratorsReviews: “This is a recommendable addition to the literature, covering its topics clearly and thoroughly.” CERN Courier

Antimatter

Author: Frank Close
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199578877
Size: 13.75 MB
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Explores what is known about the world of antimatter, from its prediction to the discovery of the first antiparticles and explains how its existence can offer clues about the origin and structure of the universe.

Physics Of Intensity Dependent Beam Instabilities

Author: King-Yuen Ng
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 981270339X
Size: 13.70 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive treatment of intensity dependent particle beam instabilities in accelerating rings. Written for researchers, the material is also suitable for use as a textbook in an advanced graduate course for students studying accelerator physics. The presentation starts with a brief review of the basic concept of wake potentials and coupling impedances in the vacuum chamber followed by a discussion on static and dynamic solutions of their effects on the particle beams. Special emphasis is placed separately on proton and electron machines. Other special topics of interest covered include Landau damping, BalakinOCoNovokhatskyOCoSmirnov damping, Sacherer''s integral equations, Landau cavity, saw-tooth instability, Robinson stability criteria, beam loading, transition crossing, two-stream instabilities, and collective instability issues of isochronous rings. After the formulation of an instability, readers are provided a thorough description of one or more experimental observations together with a discussion of the cures for the instability. Although the book is theory oriented, the use of mathematics has been minimized. The presentation is intended to be rigorous and self-contained with nearly all the formulas and equations derived."

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology Volume 9 Technology And Applications Of Advanced Accelerator Concepts

Author: Chao Alexander Wu
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813209593
Size: 12.72 MB
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Since its invention in the 1920s, particle accelerators have made tremendous progress in accelerator science, technology and applications. However, the fundamental acceleration principle, namely, to apply an external radiofrequency (RF) electric field to accelerate charged particles, remains unchanged. As this method (either room temperature RF or superconducting RF) is approaching its intrinsic limitation in acceleration gradient (measured in MeV/m), it becomes apparent that new methods with much higher acceleration gradient (measured in GeV/m) must be found for future very high energy accelerators as well as future compact (table-top or room-size) accelerators. This volume introduces a number of advanced accelerator concepts (AAC) — their principles, technologies and potential applications. For the time being, none of them stands out as a definitive direction in which to go. But these novel ideas are in hot pursuit and look promising. Furthermore, some AAC requires a high power laser system. This has the implication of bringing two different communities — accelerator and laser — to join forces and work together. It will have profound impact on the future of our field. Also included are two special articles, one on "Particle Accelerators in China' which gives a comprehensive overview of the rapidly growing accelerator community in China. The other features the person-of-the-issue who was well-known nuclear physicist Jerome Lewis Duggan, a pioneer and founder of a huge community of industrial and medical accelerators in the US.

Nuclear Energy

Author: Raymond Murray
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 9780080919447
Size: 16.26 MB
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Nuclear Energy is one of the most popular texts ever published on basic nuclear physics, systems, and applications of nuclear energy. This newest edition continues the tradition of offering a holistic treatment of everything the undergraduate engineering student needs to know in a clear and accessible way. Presented is a comprehensive overview of radioactivity, radiation protection, nuclear reactors, waste disposal, and nuclear medicine. • New coverage on nuclear safety concerns following 9/11, including radiation and terrorism, nuclear plant security, and use of nuclear techniques to detect weapons materials • New facts on nuclear waste management, including the Yucca Mountain repository • New developments in the use of nuclear-powered systems for generating cheap and abundant hydrogen from water using nuclear technology • New information on prospects for new nuclear power reactors and their applications for electricity and desalination • New end-of-chapter Exercises and Answers, lists of Internet resources, and updated references. • New instructor web site including Solutions to Exercises and PowerPoint slides • New student web site containing computer programs for use with Computer Exercises