Engines Of Discovery

Author: Andrew Sessler
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814417335
Size: 73.14 MB
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The first edition of Engines of Discovery celebrated in words, images and anecdotes the accelerators and their constructors that culminated in the discovery of the Higgs boson. But even before the Higgs was discovered, before the champagne corks popped and while the television producers brushed up their quantum mechanics, a new wave of enthusiasm for accelerators to be applied for more practical purposes was gaining momentum. Almost all fields of human endeavour will be enhanced by this trend: energy conservation, medical diagnostics and treatment, national security, as well as industrial processing. Accelerators have been used most spectacularly to reveal the structure of the complex molecules that determine our metabolism and life. For every accelerator chasing the Higgs, there are now ten thousand serving other purposes. It is high time to move from abstract mathematics and philosophy to the practical needs of humankind. It is the aim of this revised and expanded edition to describe this revolution in a manner which will attract the young, not only to apply their curiosity to the building blocks of matter but to help them contribute to the improvement of the quality of life itself on this planet. As always, the authors have tried to avoid lengthy mathematical description. In describing a field which reaches out to almost all of today's cutting edge technology, some detailed explanation cannot be avoided but this has been confined to sidebars. References guide experts to move on to the journal Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology and other publications for more information. But first we would urge every young physicist, teacher, journalist and politician to read this book. Contents:Electrostatic AcceleratorsCyclotronsLinear AcceleratorsBetatronsSynchrotronsCollidersNeutrino Super Beams, Neutrino Factories and Muon CollidersDetectorsHigh-Energy and Nuclear PhysicsSynchrotron Radiation SourcesIsotope Production and Cancer Therapy AcceleratorsSpallation Neutron SourcesAccelerators in Industry and ElsewhereNational SecurityEnergy and the EnvironmentA Final Word — Mainly to the Young Readership: Scientists, research physicists, engineers and administrators at accelerator laboratories; general readers; undergraduates and graduates in physics, electrical engineering and the history of science. Keywords:Particle Accelerators;Physics;Engineering;History;International;Synchrotron;Collider;Linac;Radiation TreatmentReviews: “This updated edition of Engines of Discovery convincingly demonstrates that ‘a century of particle accelerators’ is still progressing, and the history of these ingenious machines will span centuries. A fascinating story of inventions and breakthroughs, presented to us by two prominent scientists, takes the reader through a mesmerising gallery of revolutionary developments in accelerator science and technology. The book is a wonderful source of inspiration and will be a great companion to the young and curious who, undoubtedly, will be the ones to make new breakthroughs and new discoveries in the future.” Professor Andrei A Seryi Director, John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science University of Oxford, Royal Holloway University of London and Imperial College London “Andrew Sessler's and Edmund Wilson's history of accelerators is a rich tapestry illustrating an intellectual adventure story with its own heroes, dramas, competitions, and even missteps and a few villains. They explain the imaginative physical and engineering insights that accelerator pioneers have employed to make modern accelerators engines of commerce and engines of well being as well as the quintessential engines of discovery. They describe this human enterprise in language that is easily accessible to the layman. Their book is lavishly illustrated with photographs of ground-breaking machines and their applications from the dawn of the accelerator age to the present.” William A Barletta USPAS Director Adjunct Professor of Physics, MIT & UCLA Visiting Professor of Economics, Univ. of Ljubljana “Accelerators have become essential tools in many areas of research, ranging from medicine through biology, chemistry and physics to archaeology. They also play vital roles in medicine and industry. Sessler and Wilson's wide-ranging history of the development of accelerators and their uses will appeal to everyone with an interest in how science and technology progress. They provide an insiders' perspective, illustrated by a wealth of anecdotes and sketches of engineers and scientists who have advanced the state of the art. Their book will enlighten and entertain experts as well as general readers.” Professor Sir Chris Llewellyn Smith FRS Director of Energy Research Oxford University President of the Council of SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East), and Director General of CERN (1994–98) “In this revised edition of Engines of Discovery, the authors have substantially expanded their text on accelerators. From principles to applications reaching deep into the specialized fields involving dedicated accelerators, the book describes the history and the state of the art of accelerator-based facilities used by experimental scientists worldwide. In particular the applications of accelerators in research and industry, medicine and security systems highlight the important role of accelerators and their vast impact on our daily life.” Norbert Holtkamp Associate Laboratory Director, Accelerator Directorate SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford “This book will stand as part of Andrew Sessler's legacy to future generations. The hope is that it will inspire budding young scientists and engineers today, for they are the future of the field.” Christine Sutton CERN “In conclusion, the book offers a very pleasant trip in the world of accelerators and applications, putting particular emphasis on the facilities designed and realized to give answers to common life questions.” Il Nuovo Saggiatore

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author: Alexander W. Chao
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814449954
Size: 21.72 MB
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This book is dedicated to superconducting technology and its applications, including superconducting magnets (SC magnets) and superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities.

Industrial Accelerators And Their Applications

Author: Robert W Hamm
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814434612
Size: 22.49 MB
Format: PDF
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This unique new book is a comprehensive review of the many current industrial applications of particle accelerators, written by experts in each of these fields. Readers will gain a broad understanding of the principles of these applications, the extent to which they are employed, and the accelerator technology utilized. The book also serves as a thorough introduction to these fields for non-experts and laymen. Due to the increased interest in industrial applications, there is a growing interest among accelerator physicists and many other scientists worldwide in understanding how accelerators are used in various applications. The government agencies that fund scientific research with accelerators are also seeking more information on the many commercial applications that have been or can be developed with the technology developments they are funding. Many industries are also doing more research on how they can improve their products or processes using particle beams Contents: Introduction to the Beam Business (Robert W Hamm and Marianne E Hamm)Ion Implantation for Fabrication of Semiconductor Devices and Materials (Michael I Current)Electron Beam Materials Processing (Donald E Powers)Electron Beam Materials Irradiators (Marshall R Cleland)Accelerator Production of Radionuclides (David J Schlyer and Thomas J Ruth)Industrial Aspects of Ion Beam Analysis (Ragnar Hellborg and Harry J Whitlow)Production and Applications of Neutrons Using Particle Accelerators (David L Chichester)Nondestructive Testing and Inspection Using Electron Linacs (William A Reed)Industrial Use of Synchrotron Radiation: Love at Second Sight (Josef Hormes and Jeffrey Warner) Readership: Physicists, engineers and practitioners in accelerator technology and applications.

Handbook Of Accelerator Physics And Engineering

Author: Alexander Wu Chao
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814415855
Size: 22.91 MB
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Edited by internationally recognized authorities in the field, this expanded and updated new edition of the bestselling Handbook, containing more than 100 new articles, is aimed at the design and operation of modern particle accelerators. It is intended as a vade mecum for professional engineers and physicists engaged in these subjects. With a collection of more than 2000 equations, 300 illustrations and 500 graphs and tables, here one will find, in addition to the common formulae of previous compilations, hard-to-find, specialized formulae, recipes and material data pooled from the lifetime experience of many of the world''s most able practitioners of the art and science of accelerators.The eight chapters include both theoretical and practical matters as well as an extensive glossary of accelerator types. Chapters on beam dynamics and electromagnetic and nuclear interactions deal with linear and nonlinear single particle and collective effects including spin motion, beam-environment, beam-beam, beam-electron, beam-ion and intrabeam interactions. The impedance concept and related calculations are dealt with at length as are the instabilities associated with the various interactions mentioned. A chapter on operational considerations includes discussions on the assessment and correction of orbit and optics errors, real-time feedbacks, generation of short photon pulses, bunch compression, tuning of normal and superconducting linacs, energy recovery linacs, free electron lasers, cooling, space-charge compensation, brightness of light sources, collider luminosity optimization and collision schemes. Chapters on mechanical and electrical considerations present material data and important aspects of component design including heat transfer and refrigeration. Hardware systems for particle sources, feedback systems, confinement and acceleration (both normal conducting and superconducting) receive detailed treatment in a subsystems chapter, beam measurement techniques and apparatus being treated therein as well. The closing chapter gives data and methods for radiation protection computations as well as much data on radiation damage to various materials and devices.A detailed name and subject index is provided together with reliable references to the literature where the most detailed information available on all subjects treated can be found.

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author: Alexander W Chao
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814651508
Size: 58.61 MB
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The idea of colliding two particle beams to fully exploit the energy of accelerated particles was first proposed by Rolf Wideröe, who in 1943 applied for a patent on the collider concept and was awarded the patent in 1953. The first three colliders — AdA in Italy, CBX in the US, and VEP-1 in the then Soviet Union — came to operation about 50 years ago in the mid-1960s. A number of other colliders followed. Over the past decades, colliders defined the energy frontier in particle physics. Different types of colliers — proton–proton, proton–antiproton, electron–positron, electron–proton, electron-ion and ion-ion colliders — have played complementary roles in fully mapping out the constituents and forces in the Standard Model (SM). We are now at a point where all predicted SM constituents of matter and forces have been found, and all the latest ones were found at colliders. Colliders also play a critical role in advancing beam physics, accelerator research and technology development. It is timely that RAST Volume 7 is dedicated to Colliders. Contents:High Energy Colliding Beams: What Is Their Future? (B Richter)Proton–Proton and Proton–Antiproton Colliders (W Scandale)Electron–Positron Circular Colliders (K Oide)Ion Colliders (W Fischer and J M Jowett) Electron–Proton and Electron–Ion Colliders (I Ben-Zvi and V Ptitsyn) Linear Colliders (A Yamamoto and K Yokoya)Muon Colliders (R B Palmer) The Photon Collider (J Gronberg)Collider Beam Physics (F Zimmermann)Collision Technologies for Circular Colliders (E Levichev)Andy Sessler: The Full Life of an Accelerator Physicist (K-J Kim, R J Budnitz and H Winick) Readership: Physicists and engineers in accelerator science and industry. Keywords:Colliders;Accelerator Physics;Andrew Sessder;Accelerator Research

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology Volume 9 Technology And Applications Of Advanced Accelerator Concepts

Author: Chao Alexander Wu
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813209593
Size: 77.75 MB
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Since its invention in the 1920s, particle accelerators have made tremendous progress in accelerator science, technology and applications. However, the fundamental acceleration principle, namely, to apply an external radiofrequency (RF) electric field to accelerate charged particles, remains unchanged. As this method (either room temperature RF or superconducting RF) is approaching its intrinsic limitation in acceleration gradient (measured in MeV/m), it becomes apparent that new methods with much higher acceleration gradient (measured in GeV/m) must be found for future very high energy accelerators as well as future compact (table-top or room-size) accelerators. This volume introduces a number of advanced accelerator concepts (AAC) — their principles, technologies and potential applications. For the time being, none of them stands out as a definitive direction in which to go. But these novel ideas are in hot pursuit and look promising. Furthermore, some AAC requires a high power laser system. This has the implication of bringing two different communities — accelerator and laser — to join forces and work together. It will have profound impact on the future of our field. Also included are two special articles, one on "Particle Accelerators in China' which gives a comprehensive overview of the rapidly growing accelerator community in China. The other features the person-of-the-issue who was well-known nuclear physicist Jerome Lewis Duggan, a pioneer and founder of a huge community of industrial and medical accelerators in the US.

Beam Dynamics In High Energy Particle Accelerators

Author: Andrzej Wolski
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1783262796
Size: 10.59 MB
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Particle accelerators are essential tools for scientific research in fields as diverse as high energy physics, materials science and structural biology. They are also widely used in industry and medicine. Producing the optimum design and achieving the best performance for an accelerator depends on a detailed understanding of many (often complex and sometimes subtle) effects that determine the properties and behavior of the particle beam. Beam Dynamics in High Energy Particle Accelerators provides an introduction to the concepts underlying accelerator beam line design and analysis, taking an approach that emphasizes the elegance of the subject and leads into the development of a range of powerful techniques for understanding and modeling charged particle beams. Contents:Electromagnetism and Classical Mechanics:Electromagnetic Fields in Accelerator ComponentsHamiltonian for a Particle in an Accelerator Beam LineSingle-Particle Linear Dynamics:Linear Transfer Maps for Common ComponentsLinear Optics in Uncoupled Beam LinesCoupled OpticsLinear Imperfections in Storage RingsEffects of Synchrotron RadiationSingle-Particle Nonlinear Dynamics:Examples of Nonlinear Effects in Accelerator Beam LinesRepresentations of Transfer MapsSymplectic IntegratorsMethods for Analysis of Single-Particle DynamicsCollective Effects:Space ChargeScattering EffectsWake Fields, Wake Functions and ImpedanceCoherent Instabilities Readership: Undergraduate students who are looking for an introduction to beam dynamics, and graduate students and researchers in the field. Key Features:Basic ideas are introduced from the start using an approach that leads logically into the development of more advanced concepts and techniques. In particular, linear dynamics is treated consistently using a Hamiltonian formalism, which provides a suitable foundation not only for perturbation theory, but also for more modern techniques based on Lie operators. The use of a consistent approach makes the progress from introductory to advanced material as straightforward as possibleThe treatment of nonlinear dynamics using Lie operators provides a number of powerful techniques for the analysis of accelerator beam lines. Lie operators are generally found only in more advanced and specialized treatments of nonlinear dynamics. Beam Dynamics in High Energy Particle Accelerators provides an accessible introduction to the subject, and illustrates the use of techniques such as Lie transforms and normal form analysis through examples of particular relevance for beam dynamicsAs well as providing a clear description of the important topics in beam dynamics and an explanation of the physical principles, attention is given to techniques of particular importance for computer modeling of beam dynamics. For example, there is a chapter on symplectic integration that gives explicit formulae for methods that are of some importance in accelerator modeling codes, but have not previously been presented in a book of this kindKeywords:Accelerator Physics;Beam Dynamics;Particle AcceleratorsReviews: “This is a recommendable addition to the literature, covering its topics clearly and thoroughly.” CERN Courier

Challenges And Goals For Accelerators In The Xxi Century

Author: Oliver Brüning
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814436410
Size: 15.72 MB
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' The past 100 years of accelerator-based research have led the field from first insights into the structure of atoms to the development and confirmation of the Standard Model of physics. Accelerators have been a key tool in developing our understanding of the elementary particles and the forces that govern their interactions. This book describes the past 100 years of accelerator development with a special focus on the technological advancements in the field, the connection of the various accelerator projects to key developments and discoveries in the Standard Model, how accelerator technologies open the door to other applications in medicine and industry, and finally presents an outlook of future accelerator projects for the coming decades. Contents:Introduction100 Years of Accelerators:Particle Accelerators in the XX Century: Lepton Accelerators for HEPParticle Accelerators in the XX Century: Hadron Accelerators for HEPParticle Accelerators in the XX Century: Asymmetric CollidersUnfulfilled DreamsLow Energy Accelerators: Nuclear PhysicsParticle Accelerators for the XXI Century:Particle Physics Accelerators in the XXI Century: Accelerators for HEP''Low Energy'' Accelerators: Rare Isotope Facilities in the XXI CenturyThe Quest for Power: High Power Proton Drivers in the XXI CenturyNovel Accelerator IdeasMedical Accelerators for Hadron Cancer Therapy Readership: Undergraduate students and professionals in accelerator physics. Key Features:Complete overview of past particle accelerator projectsDescription of LHC technology in time with the Higgs discoveryOutlook to potential future accelerator projects and applicationsSummary of medical applications for acceleratorsKeywords:Particle Accelerators;High Energy Physics;Accelerator Technology'

Antimatter

Author: Frank Close
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199578877
Size: 32.28 MB
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Explores what is known about the world of antimatter, from its prediction to the discovery of the first antiparticles and explains how its existence can offer clues about the origin and structure of the universe.

The God Particle

Author: Leon M. Lederman
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 9780618711680
Size: 13.20 MB
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The world's foremost experimental physicist uses humor, metaphor, and storytelling to delve into the mysteries of matter, discussing the as-yet-to-be-discovered God particle.