Effluents From Alternative Demilitarization Technologies

Author: F.W. Holm
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401153108
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FRANCIS W. HOLM 30 Agua Sarca Road, Placitas, New Mexico 1. Overview The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) sponsored an Advanced Research in Prague, Czech Republic, on October 13-15, 1997, to collect and Workshop (ARW) study information on effluents from alternative demilitarization technologies and to report on these fmdings. The effluents, orprocess residues, identified for assessment at the workshop are generated by systems that have been proposed as alternatives to incineration technology for destruction of munitions, chemical warfare agent, and associated materials and debris. The alternative technologies analyzed are grouped into three categories based on process bulk operating temperature: low (0-200 C), medium (200-600 C), and high (600-3,500 C). Reaction types considered include hydrolysis, biodegradation, electrochemical oxidation, gas-phase high-temperature reduction, steam reforming, gasification, sulfur reactions, solvated electron chemistry, sodium reactions, supercritical water oxidation, wet air oxidation, and plasma torch technology. These ofprocesses, some of which have been studied categories represent a broad spectrum only in the laboratory and some of which are in commercial use for destruction of hazardous and toxic wastes. Some technologies have been developed and used for specific commercial applications; however, in all cases, research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) is necessary to assure that each technology application is effective for destroying chemical warfare materiel. Table 1 contains a list of more than 40 technologies from a recent report for the U.S. Army [1]. Many ofthe technologies in Table 1 are based on similar principles.

Scientific Advances In Alternative Demilitarization Technologies

Author: F.W. Holm
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400916833
Size: 20.96 MB
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FRANCIS W. HOLM Science Applications International Corporation 7102 Meadow Lane, Chevy Chase, MD 20815 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) sponsored an Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) in Warsaw, Poland on April 24-25, 1995, to collect and study information on alternative and supplemental demilitarization technologies. The conference included experienced scientists and engineers, who delivered presentations and provided written reports oftheir findings. Countries describing their technologies included: Poland (pre-processing, thermal oxidation, and instrumentation), Russia (molten salt oxidation, plasma, catalytic oxidation, supertoxicants, molten metal, fluid bed reactions, and hydrogenation), Germany (supercritical water oxidation and detoxification), the United Kingdom (electrochemical oxidation), the United States (wet air oxidation, detoxification and biodegradation), and the Czech Republic (biodegradation). The technologies identified for assessment at the workshop are alternatives to incineration technology for chemical warfare agent destruction. Treatment of metal parts and explosive or energetic material were considered as a secondary issue. The treatment of dunnage and problems associated with decontamination, while recognized as an element of demilitarization, received only limited discussion. The alternative technologies are grouped into three categories based on process bulk operating temperature: low (O-200°C), medium (200-600°C), and high (600-3,500°C). Reaction types considered include hydrolysis, oxidation, electrochemical, hydrogenation, and pyrolysis. These categories represent a broad spectrum of processes, some of which have been studied only in the laboratory and some of which are in commercial use for destruction of hazardous and toxic wastes. Some technologies have been developed and used for specific commercial applications.

Mobile Alternative Demilitarization Technologies

Author: F.W. Holm
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401155267
Size: 48.62 MB
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FRANCIS W. HOLM 7102 Meadow Lane, Chevy Chase, MD 20815 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) sponsored an Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) in Prague, Czech Republic, on 1-2 July 1996, to collect and study information on mobile alternative and supplemental demilitarization technologies and to report these fmdings. The mobile, or transportable, technologies identified for assessment at the workshop are alternatives to incineration technology for destruction of munitions, chemical warfare agent, and associated materials and debris. Although the discussion focused on the treatment of metal parts and explosive or energetic material, requirements for decontamination of other materials were discussed. The mobile alternative technologies are grouped into three categories based on process bulk operating temperature: low (0-200 C), medium (200-600 C), and high (600- 3,500 C). Reaction types considered include hydrolysis, biodegradation, electrochemical oxidation, gas-phase high-temperature reduction, stearn reforming, gasification, sulfur reactions, solvated electron chemistry, sodium reactions, supercritical water oxidation, wet air oxidation, and plasma torch technology. These categories represent a broad spectrum of processes, some of which have been studied only in the laboratory and some of which are in commercial use for destruction of hazardous and toxic wastes. Some technologies have been developed and used for specific commercial applications; however, in all cases, research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT &E) is necessary to assure that each technology application is effective for destroying chemical warfare materiel.

Energy And Environmental Challenges To Security

Author: Stephen Stec
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402094515
Size: 24.63 MB
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On 21 November 2007 the grand and elegant Delegates Hall of the Hungarian Parliament was the scene of the opening of a conference to discuss some of the most pressing issues of the day, those related to our unending thirst for energy, its environmental consequences, and the challenges that these bear on security. Over the next 3 days scientists, parliamentarians and their guests confronted, challenged, teased and cajoled each other in a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) entitled “Energy and Environmental Challenges to Security,” affirming that knowledge and public service hold the keys to solving our greatest challenges. The magnitude of the security challenge was confirmed while this volume was being prepared. In mid-2008, the International Energy Agency issued a report concluding that US$45 trillion would be needed over the next half century to prevent energy shortages and greenhouse gas emissions from undermining global economic growth. But lest such large numbers cause us all to shrug, this volume brings attention to some of the more manageable aspects of the environment and energy security challenge – from addressing conflict resources such as illegal timber that contribute to corruption and regional instability, to means and mechanisms to enable the diversification of energy supplies, to environmental risk reduction strategies for particular installations. The participants in the Hungarian Parliament building were atypical for a NATO Advanced Research Workshop.

Environmental Security In South Eastern Europe

Author: Massimiliano Montini
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400702280
Size: 27.59 MB
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Authored by international experts from academia, international organizations, governments and NGOs, this book highlights the main environmental security issues in the South-East European (SEE) countries, with a particular focus on climate change and water management. The common goal of the authors was to provide a reliable evaluation of whether existing legal regimes and correct implementation of applicable international treaties may contribute to reducing environmental security risks in the region. In-depth analyses and assessment of major challenges in compliance, serve as a firm ground which such evaluation is based on. This volume is recommended for public officials, legal practitioners and consultants. Its interest may also extend beyond the SEE countries, serving as a case-study of a broader and paradigmatic relevance of the analysis and management of environmental and security issues in a trans-boundary context.

Environmental Contamination And Remediation Practices At Former And Present Military Bases

Author: F. Fonnum
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401153043
Size: 69.69 MB
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Environmental Contamination and Remediation Practices at Former and Present Military Bases outlines the different strategies that are useful in the investigation and subsequent remediation of military bases, Particular attention is paid to the pollution of groundwater. The book contains an excellent review of useful remediation techniques and several examples of their application to polluted military bases. Several mathematical models are demonstrated, showing their predictive value for real examples. A detailed list is given of chemical pollutants that can be found on a military base. Strategies are described for the investigation and determination of the future of a polluted military site. Examples are given, obtained from practical experience of dealing with old, contaminated sites.

Environmental Histories Of The Cold War

Author: J. R. McNeill
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521762448
Size: 37.27 MB
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Explores the links between the Cold War and the global environment, ranging from the environmental impacts of nuclear weapons to the political repercussions of environmentalism.

Counteraction To Chemical And Biological Terrorism In East European Countries

Author: Christophor Dishovsky
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048123429
Size: 20.69 MB
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The terrorist act with sarin gas in the Tokyo underground and the case with the spread of anthrax spores through the U.S. postal system stimulated the development of orga- zation of fight against terrorism on a national and global level. The goal of this wo- shop was assessment of scientific concepts and practical means for management of chemical and biological agents casualties in the area of terrorist attacks with emphasis on improving the problems and situation in Eastern European Countries. In this book are included the results of both theoretical and practical research of chemical and biological terrorism presented during the workshop. Different trends of research to fight against terrorism on both local and governmental level including some Eastern European countries are discussed. The scientific articles are grouped into those areas: – New approaches in counteraction to chemical and biological terrorism – Medical treatment and decontamination of casualties from chemical and biological agents – Diagnosis of exposure to chemical and biological agents – Development of protection against injuries from chemical and biological agents In these articles the following are emphasized: – Some aspects of national and global defense against chemical and biological terrorism – National action plans and global agreements on combating terrorism – The characteristics of the major specific injuries connected with chemical and biological terrorism – Threats of terroristic attacks – Epidemiological and clinical peculiarities, ways of diagnosing, medical tre- ment and preventive health care measures These problems are analyzed from an interdisciplinary perspective.