Ecosystem Responses To Mercury Contamination

Author: Reed Harris
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849388897
Size: 77.40 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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As rising levels of mercury in the environment pose an increasing threat of toxicity to humans and wildlife, several laws already call for industries to reduce mercury emissions at the source. Ecosystem Responses to Mercury Contamination: Indicators of Change outlines the infrastructure and methods needed to measure, monitor, and regulate the concentration of mercury present in the environment. This book draws on the knowledge of forty international experts in the fields of atmospheric transport and deposition, mercury cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic foodwebs and wildlife. The authors propose a set of indicators to use as a measure of changing mercury concentrations in the environment. Next, they recommend a monitoring strategy and offer guidance for determining systematic changes in concentration. Then the authors examine additional monitoring strategies to relate observed changes in concentration to regulatory controls on mercury emissions. The final chapter provides an integrated framework for establishing a national-scale program to monitor mercury concentrations in the environment. Ecosystem Responses to Mercury Contamination: Indicators of Change contains the information needed to design a large-scale monitoring program for mercury and to use the concentration data to create, enforce, and evaluate the progress of initiatives aimed at reducing mercury emissions.

Mercury In Fish Bed Sediment And Water From Streams Across The United States 1998 2005

Author: Barbara C. Scudder
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1437921132
Size: 25.22 MB
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Report on how mercury (Hg) was examined in top-predator fish, bed sediment, and water from streams that spanned regional and national gradients of Hg source strength and other factors thought to influence methylmercury bioaccum. Sampled settings include stream basins that were agr¿l, urbanized, undeveloped, and mined. Predator fish were targeted for collection, and composited samples of fish were analyzed for total Hg (THg), as most of the Hg found in fish tissue is MeHg. Samples of bed sediment and stream water were analyzed for THg, MeHg, and characteristics thought to affect Hg methylation, such as loss-on-ignition and acid-volatile sulfide in bed sediment, and pH, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved sulfate in water. Illus.

Valuation Of Ecological Resources

Author: Ralph G. Stahl, Jr.
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420062632
Size: 38.84 MB
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Choosing the optimal management option requires environmental risk managers and decision makers to evaluate diverse, and not always congruent, needs and interests of multiple stakeholders. Understanding the trade-offs of different options as well as their legal, economic, scientific, and technological implications is critical to performing accurate assessments and making sound decisions. Valuation of Ecological Resources: Integration of Ecology and Socioeconomics in Environmental Decision Making examines various alternatives for determining the “value” of complex ecological resources. The book discusses how ecology, sociology, and economics influence environmental management decisions. The book further explores the scientific underpinnings of ecological valuation and the roles of regulatory and legislative bodies in the decision-making process. A series of case studies demonstrates the utility of various information sets, tools, and analytical frameworks. Summarizes the conclusions reached by the Ecological Risk Assessment Advisory Group during special workshops conducted by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Written by leading experts from industry, academia, and environmental regulatory agencies, this new text is an excellent resource for self-study as well as for courses in industrial ecology, environmental management, ecological risk assessment, environmental policy, and strategies for sustainability and corporate responsibility.

Encyclopedia Of Environmental Change

Author: John A Matthews
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1473928192
Size: 60.21 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Accessibly written by a team of international authors, the Encyclopedia of Environmental Change provides a gateway to the complex facts, concepts, techniques, methodology and philosophy of environmental change. This three-volume set illustrates and examines topics within this dynamic and rapidly changing interdisciplinary field. The encyclopedia includes all of the following aspects of environmental change: Diverse evidence of environmental change, including climate change and changes on land and in the oceans Underlying natural and anthropogenic causes and mechanisms Wide-ranging local, regional and global impacts from the polar regions to the tropics Responses of geo-ecosystems and human-environmental systems in the face of past, present and future environmental change Approaches, methodologies and techniques used for reconstructing, dating, monitoring, modelling, projecting and predicting change Social, economic and political dimensions of environmental issues, environmental conservation and management and environmental policy Over 4,000 entries explore the following key themes and more: Conservation Demographic change Environmental management Environmental policy Environmental security Food security Glaciation Green Revolution Human impact on environment Industrialization Landuse change Military impacts on environment Mining and mining impacts Nuclear energy Pollution Renewable resources Solar energy Sustainability Tourism Trade Water resources Water security Wildlife conservation The comprehensive coverage of terminology includes layers of entries ranging from one-line definitions to short essays, making this an invaluable companion for any student of physical geography, environmental geography or environmental sciences.

Ecotoxicology Of Amphibians And Reptiles Second Edition

Author: Donald W. Sparling
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420064177
Size: 40.70 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Building on the success of its popular predecessor, the second edition of Ecotoxicology of Amphibians and Reptiles presents newly available findings on the species that are important environmental indicators. This new edition covers nearly twice as many topics as the first, including recent developments in the ecotoxicology of amphibians and reptiles, the current status of these animals, and intrinsic factors that affect their susceptibility to contaminants. The book also provides the latest information on specific groups of contaminants and their effects and body burdens in herpetafauna. After a review of how contaminants interact with other ecological factors, the text explores concerns for the future. New in the second edition: New research on the effects of pesticides, heavy metals, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and UVB Increased focus on the effects of contaminants rather than merely reporting residue information A synthesis of information on atrazine and its effects on gonads at low concentrations Coverage of the potentially alarming new cadre of chemicals that have recently or are about to come on the market for which there is very little or no information Important advances in surveying and monitoring One of the major factors behind the writing of the first edition was the worldwide phenomenon of declining amphibian populations. Although this decline has not abated, the breadth of research into its causes has expanded significantly. With chapter contributors carefully selected by the team of editors as leaders in their fields, this book provides an authoritative compendium of the most recent information on effects and residues coupled with a syntheses of what these numbers mean to science and policy.

Freshwater Bivalve Ecotoxicology

Author: Jerry L. Farris
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420042856
Size: 12.89 MB
Format: PDF
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Responding to the growing need for an aggressive yet conservative approach to evaluating mussel populations, Freshwater Bivalve Ecotoxicology provides a collective review of the techniques and approaches for assessing contaminant impact on freshwater ecosystems. The editors incorporate coverage of research topics and management issues from a cross-section of scientists in the field. They explore current advances in general monitoring of population responses to stressors, fundamental concepts of ecotoxicology specific to burrowing bivalves, and useful insights that offer direction and priority for resolving specific problems challenging protection and conservation efforts. This book lays the groundwork with discussions of topics such as impact assessment, toxicokinetics, biomarkers, and pollution tolerance. The authors then explore fundamental concepts surrounding responses measured in freshwater bivalves as a consequence of chemical exposures or accumulated contaminants in target organs or tissues. They highlight the difficulties encountered with the laboratory culture of these organisms for toxicity testing or other controlled experiments, and examine the use of surrogate test organisms to relate sensitivities of response and reduce pressure on already impacted fauna. The book also reviews innovative field research using in situ bivalve toxicity testing, discusses effects-oriented tissue contaminant assessment, and concludes with threefour specific laboratory or combined field/laboratory ecotoxicology studies. A summary of methods from more than 75 laboratory toxicity studies conducted with freshwater mussels, the book provides an overview of a standardized method for conducting water-only acute and chronic laboratory toxicity tests with glochidia juvenile freshwater mussels. It focuses on studies that report measured contaminant treatments, had robust experimental designs, including replication of control and contaminant treatments, and were published in the peer-reviewed literature. The resulting array of viewpoints provides a framework that can be used to establish priorities in the rehabilitation and management of freshwater ecosystems.

Environmental Life Cycle Costing

Author: David Hunkeler
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN:
Size: 27.26 MB
Format: PDF
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Balances Scientific and Economic Points of View to Thoroughly Address Management Issues Responding to the need for clarification and benchmarks, Environmental Life Cycle Costing provides the fundamental basis on which to establish a definitive methodology. Clearly defining environmental LCC, this book balances scientific and economic points of view and thoroughly addresses the management perspective. Demonstrates the Process From Problem Definition to Analysis, to Presentation The book focuses on environmental LCC but also analyzes conventional LCC and societal LCC, providing case studies for each. It presents the link between life cycle costing and life cycle assessment and then explores public, private, and societal options. The book also explains all components of the method using the cross-cutting example of a washing machine. It also provides categorizations that permit the method to be adapted or streamlined as a function of the time available to the practitioner. Case study boxes demonstrate the process for carrying out an LCC, from problem definition to analysis and ultimate presentation to the decision maker. Experts Integrate Conventional Thinking with Emerging Ideas Environmental LCC summarizes all costs associated with the life cycle of a product regardless of who bears those costs. It includes present and future money flows as well as those to be internalized in the decision relevant future. A collaboration of experts at the forefront of research, this book ties conventional thinking on life cycle costs into emerging theory and practice by including environmental and social cost analyses and linking LCC to the environmental and social pillars of sustainability.